Instrument with strings running parallel to the resonating soundboard and attach to a cross bar supported by two arms. Found in a discovery in the royal tombs at Ur.
bull lyre
A particular lyre found in the Ur discovery. A distinctive Sumerian lyre with a bull’s head featured on the soundbox. This apparently had religous sugnificance.
One of three primary instruments of the Greeks along with the lyre and kithara. The Aulos was a pipe typically played in pairs. The pipes had fingerholes and mouthpiece fitted with a reed. Pitch could be changed by the position of the reed in the mouth, air pressure and the fingering. Used in the worship of Dionyaus, god of fertility and wine.
The kithera was a large lyre used for processions and sacred ceremonies and the theater. It was played while the musician was standing.


Greek term from which melody is derived. Was a single melodic line played on an instrument or sung. a perfect melos was a melody, text and stylized dance movement combined as a whole.
Refers to one’s ethical character or way of being and behaving. Greek writers believed music had this effect. Pythagorean view of music as a system of pitch and rhythm were the same mathmatical laws that operated in the visible and the invisible world.
Term given by Pythagoras referring to the unification of parts in an ordorly whole. He and his followers believed that numbers were the key to the univers and music was inseparable from numbers. They believed that music was a reflection of the order of the universe.
Comprised four notes spanning a perfect fourth. There were three genera (sing. genus), diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic. while the outer notes span a perfect fourth, the inner two notes could move to form different intervals within to create differetn genera.
Genus or Genera (pl)
Refers to the classes of tetrachord: diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic. Depending on the class of tetrachord determined the species of the mode.
The Greater Perfect System
Four tetrachords plus an added lower note to complete a four octave span.
Term given to two tetrachords in succession that share the same note. ie: a,g,f,e (tetrachord 1) and e,d,c,b (tetrachord 2) “e” is shared by both.
term used to refer to two tetrachords in succession that are separated by a whole tone. ie: e, d, c, b (tetrachord 1) a, g, f, e (tetrachord 2). Important to the Greater Perfect System.
Species of Consonances

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Cleonides noted that in the diatonic genus (tetrachord class) the three main consonances of perfect 4th, 5th and octave were subdivided into tone and semitones in only a limited number of ways which he called species. He identified three species of fourth, the first ascending S-T-T as in (d

b-c-d-e), the second T-T-S as in c-d-e-f) and the third T-S-T as in (d-e-f-g). There are 4 species of the fifths and seven species of the octave.

tonos, (pl. tonoi)
A scale or set of pitches within a spicific range or region of the voice.  Names were given to these scales(modes) to include Dorian, Phrgian, Lydian and Mixolydian. These names came from the various regions which they originated.
Original name given to refer to the octave species of Dorian, Phrygian and Lydian. This term was used to associate these octaves species as a group by Plato and Aristotle. Later Cleonides and Aristides uintilianus used the same names for up to fiteen different tonoi.
Epitaph of Seikilos
Music inscribed on the tombstone. Indicated it uses the phrygian octave species. The tonos called Iastian by the theorists is used in which the system is transposed up a whole step. It appears to be lighthearted  even while acknowledging death.
church rite
term that includes the church calendar (or schedule of days commemorating special events, individuals, or times of year; litergy (body of texts and ritual actions assigned to each service; and a repertory of plainchant, or chant (unison song with melodies for the perscribed texts.
chant dialects
Byzantine, Ambrosian and Old Roman chants.
echo (pl. echoi)
Refers to the eight modes of Bynzantine chant. A Bynzantine term for mode or modes.
Byzantine Chant
Greek Orthododox included hymns.  Missionaries took music to Russian and Slav territories and the texts were translatd into local languages.
Byzantine chant melodies created by combining standard formulas to make a new melody. Some motives were used for a particular type of chant or melodic style. Some were best suited for the beginning, middle or cadence (end of melody). Others were used for connecting or linking certain modes, pitches or accentuation patterns.
Ambrosian chant
The most important center for western church outside of Rome was Milan. Had close ties to byzantium. The style of songs from this area were named after the St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan from 374-397.
Gregorian chant
The codification of liturgy and music under Roman leaders helped by the Frankish kins led to this repertory. The Schola Cantorum (School of Singers), the choir that sang when the pope officiated at observances (founded in the late seventh century) probably played a role in standardizing chant melodies in the early eith century. By midcentury particular liturgical texts and melodies were assigned to particular services throughout the year in an order that was added to but not essentially changed until the sixteenth century.
Old Roman Chant
Similar to Gregorian Chant but was more ornate. Suggests that both chant dialects derived from a common source. Manuscripts date back from eleventh and twelfth centuries. With same text as Gregorian chant dating bact to eighth cenury Rome.
Signs placed above the words in early notation to indicate the number of notes per syllable and whether the note ascends or descends or repeats the pitch. Because the exactness of the pitch is not notated these only served as reminders for the singer. The melody still had to be known or learned by ear.
diastematic notation
Found in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Neumes at varying heights about the text to indicate the reative size and direction of the intervals. Also called heightened neumes.
lines, clefs and staff
Eleventh century monk, Guido of Arezzo suggested using lines and spaces to place the nuemes on so that the singer could learn music without having heard it before.
Martianus Capella
In his treatise: The Marriage of Mercury and Philology he described the seven liberal arts: grammer, dialectic, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and harmonics (music).

The most revered authority on music in the Middle Ages. Born in the third century. Wrote thesis De institutione musica (The fundamentals of Music). To him, music is a science of numbers and numberical ratios and proportions determined intervals, consonances, scales and tuning.

He devided music into three parts: musica mundana (music of the universe) which controlled the planets, seasons and the elements, musica humana (human music) which harmonizes and unifies the body, soul and their parts, and musica instrumentalis (instrumental music) audible music produced by instruments or voices, which exemplifies the same principles of order, especially in the numerical ratiof musical intervals.

Musica enchiriadis
(ninth century) Introduced a system for notating chant, describes eight modes, privides excercises for locating semitones in polyphony. by Boethius.
Characteristics of Church Modes

Consists of a final, range and tenor.  The final is the primary note and usually is the note which the melody ends.

Each one is paired with one that has the same final. There are four finals each with a unique combination of tones and semitones surrounding it.

Two categories:

Authentic and Plagal.

Authentic range is one note above or one note below final.

Plagal has the same final but a much deeper range, from a fourth below to a fifth or sixth above the final.

Names are given;


Dorian with final on D

Hypodorian (plagal) range from A to A but final is still D

Phrygian final on E


Lydian final on F


Mixolydian final on G


Species of fifth and fourth
Described by Cleonides that each mode is devided into two spans, a fifth rising from the final and a fourth that is above the fifth in the authentic modes and below the final in the plagal modes. The arragement of whole tones and semitones above each of the four finals is unique.
Tenor or reciting tone
The tenor or reciting tone differs from authentic to plagal. In the authentic mode, the tenor is a fifth above the final and in the plagal modes the teonr is a third below the tenor of the coresponding authentic mode. If the tenor falls on B then the tenor is moved to the C as in the lydian mode.
Attributed to Guido of Arezzo. a system of assigning syllables to tones and semitones: ut re mi fa sol la.
When a melody exceeded a six note range, it required changing from one hexachord to another inorder to use the proper solmization.
Guidonian hand
A method of using the joints of the left hand to represent Guido’s solmization and mutation technique.

The most important service in the Roman Church. Evolved from commemorations of the Last Supper of Jesus with his desciples. Consists of the Proper and Ordinary.

The proper varied from day to day.

Mass ordinary did not change.

The proper chants are called by their function.

The Ordinary chants by their intitial words.

The main musical items of the Ordinary are:

Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei.


One of three manners of performance for chant in a Mass. The other two are antiphonal and direct.

This is when a soloistalterntes with the choir or congregation.


One of three manners of;performance in a Mass. The other two are responsoral and direct.

This is when the choir is devided into two groups and the choirs alternate.


One of three manners of performance during Mass. The other two are responsoral and antiphonal.

This is when there is no alternation of voices contrary to antiphonal or responsorial.

psalm tones

Formula for singing psalms in the Office. These are designed so they can be adapted to fit any psalm. There is one tone fore each of the eight modes, using the moe’s tenor as a recitation note; a ninth, very ancient formula has two reciting notes, earning it the name Tonus Peregrinus (wondering tone). These psalm tones are still used today.

Consists of four parts.

The intonation = the rising motive used only for the first vierse: recitation on the tenor

The mediant = a cadence for the middle of each verse

The termination = the final cadence for each verse

The Lesser Doxology = Follows the last verse. A formula of praise to the Trinity sung in the same tone.

recitation formula
The simplest chants are the formulas for intoning prayers and bible readings such as the Collect, Epistle and Gospel. The text is chanted on a reciting note, usually A or C with brief motives marking the ends fo phrases, sentences and the entire reading; some formulas also begin phrases with a rise to the reciting note.
Office Antiphons

An Office psalm or canticle is not complete in itself but is preceded and followed by an antiphon resulting in the musical form ABB . . . BBA.

While the antiphon varies with each day in the church calendar, each psalm is framed by many different antiphons during the year.


Expanded an existing chant in one of three ways:


By adding new words and music before the chant and

1) often between phrases

2) melody only, extending melismas or adding new


3) text only set to existing melismas.

Typically sung by soloists and set neumatically to fit with the chant to which they were attached.

Flourished especially in monasteries during the tenth and eleventh centuries. Were eventually banned by the Council of Trent (1545-63).


A genre popular from the late nith through the twelfth centuries. Set syllabically to a text that is mostly in couplets and are sung after the Alleluia at Mass. Consists of a single sentence; a series of paired sentences or phrases; and a final unpaired sentence. A BB, CC….
Hildegard of Bingen
prioress and abbess of her own convent and a writer and compser. (1098-1179).  Most extended work is Ordo vrtutum. A sacred music drama in vere with eighty-two songs.
Latin song, was normally sacred and sometimes attached to the liturgy. Monophonic versions appeared in the eleventh century, particularly in Aquitaine in southwestern France and they influencd tow other repertories from the same region, troubadour songs and Aquitanian polyphony.
Related to versus. Originated n the twelfth century as a song that was perfored while a liturgical book was carried into place for a reading or a celbrant was conduced from one place to another. Term was later used for any serious Latin song with a rhymed, rhythmical text on any subject sacred or secular. Used newly composed melodies not based on chant.
Goliard songs
From late tenth to thirteenth centuries. Associated with wondering students and clerics. Topics vary from religious and moral themes to satire and celebration of love, spring eating, drinking and other earthly peasures.
Vernacular poem with long heroic narrative. Many were transmitted orally before being written down. chanson de gest (song of deeds) is a type of epic.
chanson de geste
“song of deeds”. An epic in the northern French vernacular recounting the dees of national heroes and sung to simple melodic formulas. The most famous chanson de geste is the Son of Roland about the batle of Charlemagne’s army against the Muslims in Spain.
Troubadours and Trouveres

Vernacular lyric tradition cultivated by courts and cities under aristocratic sponsorship beginning in the twelfth century.

The first listed were poet-composers of Southern France (Occitan) and the second listed were from Northern France whose language was Old French.

Occitan language was called langue d’ oc.

Old French was langue d’ oil.

The central theme is fin’amors (Occitan) or fin amour (French) meaning courtly love.

The castles and courts throughout France supported them.

While many of these performed their own songs, but often the perfomrace was entrused to jongleur or menstrels.


(songbooks) Anthologies preserving the songs of troubadours and trouveres. About 2600 toubadour poems servived a tenth with melodies by contrast, two thirds of the 2100 extant trouvere poems have music.
Modeled after the troubadours, Knightly poet-musicians in Germany who flourished between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries and wrote in Middle High German.
Love songs performed and written by minnesingers in Germany. The love which they sang was even more spiritual then fin’amors with an emphais on faithfulness, duty and service that reflected the loyalty that knights and nobles owed to their kind and that Christians owed to the church.
laude (sing. lauda)
Italian monophonic sacred song. Composed in ciies rather than at court. Were sung in processions of religious penitents nd in confraternities, associations of citizens who gathered for prayer and mutual support.; From late 14th century on they were polyphonic.
Medievel fiddle and the principal medieval bowed instrument and predecessor of the Renaissance viol and modern violin. Varied in shape and size, the typical thirteenth century version had five strings tuned in fourths and fifths so the melody could;be supported by one or more drones on open strings.
a three-stringed;vielle sounded by a rotating wheel inside the instrument turned by a crank at one end. The player presses levers to change pitches on the melody string while the other strings sound drones.
played by plucking strings attached to a frame over a wooden sonding board: it is a remote ancestor of the harpsichord and piano.
transverse flute
similar to modern day flute but made out of wood or ivory and without keys.
a double reeded instrument similar to the oboe.
pipe and tabor
a high whistle fingered with the left hand while the right hand beat a small drum with a stick.
Contigas de Santa Maria
Treasured collection of medieval Galician-Portuguese song in honor of the Virgin Mary. The collection was prepared about 1270-90 under the direction of King Alfonso el Sabio and Leon of Spain. Most songs related to to stories of miracles performed by the Virgin. Several miniatures of musicians playing instruments are displayed such as the transverse flute, shawm, medieval trumpet and the pipe and tabor.
Medieval instrumental dance. Has several sections each played twice with two different endings. The first with an open (ouvert) or incomplete cadence and the second with a closed (clos) or full cadence. The same open and closed endingsare usually employed throughout. A late-thirteenth century chansonnier called Le manuscrit du roi includes eight royal estampies. All French estampie are in triple meter and the fourteenth century Italian version is called istampita and uses the same form but is in duple or compound meter with more repetition.
Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriadis
Ninth century anonymous treatises discribing ways to enrich melody by doubling it in parallel consonant intervals. The treatises uses the term organum for two or more voices singing different notes in agreeable combinations.;Also discribes the scale system which contained augmented fourths (tritones) such as Bb-e and f-b and the adjustments necessary to avoid them produced in organum.
Sustaining the modal final, sometimes joined by the fifth above. For the listener, these ground the melody in its tonal center and heighten the sense of closure when the melody cadences on the final.
Term used in the Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriadis for two or more voices singing different notes in agreeable combinations. This term was used for several styles of polyphony from the ninth through thirteenth centuries.
Parallel Organum
Consists of a principal voice (the original chant melody) and the organal voice (moving in exact parallel motion a fifth below. Either or both voices may be doubled at the octave.
Free Organum
By the late eleventh century, singers were improvising and scribes were recording a new style of organum. This style is a note against note organum in whichthe organal voice has greater independence and prominence. Rules for improvising or composing int he new style are preserved in Ad organm faciendum (On Making Oranum ca. 1100). By this time the added voice lies above the chant rather than below.
Aquitanian Polyphony

Early in the 12th century, singers and composers in France developed a new more ornate type of polyphony.; Named because the main sources are three manuscripts once held in the Abby of St. Martial at Limoges in the duchy of Aqauitaine (Southwestern France) and copied to Aquitanian notation. Incluseds settings of chant, such as swquences, Benedicamus Domino melodies, and solo portions of seponsorial chants. But most of the repertory comprises seettings of versus, rhymig, scanning, accentual Latin poems, which were also set monophonically. These versus are the earliest known polyphony not based on chant.

Theorists of the time described two main polyphonic styles: Discant and florid organum.

(Aquitanian) discant
Occurs when bnoth parts move at about the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice. This is in contrast to florid organum where the lower voice moves much more slowly than the upper, sustaining each note while the upper voice sings notegroups of varying lengths above it.
florid organum
Term used in Aquitanian polyphony to describe organum where the lowervoice moves much more slowly thant he upper, sustaining each note while the upper voice sings notgroups of varying lengths above it. This is in contrast to the other style of Aquitanian polyphony called discant where both parts move at about the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice. In both styles the principal melody is called the tenor.
Notre Dame Polyphony
A more ornate style of polyphony developed in Paris in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Home of Leonin and Paritin. These composers developed the first notation since acient Greece to indicate duration, a step of great importance for later music. This music was discribed in treatis of 13th century by Johannes de Garlandia.
Term used in Notre Dame notation of 13th century to refer to note groups including longs (long notes;and breves (short notes).
Rhythmic modes

Garlandia discribed six basic rhythmic patterns in his treatise concerning Notre Dame Polyphony. These were identified by number.

1. Long (L) Short (B)

1. B L

3. LBB; (where L is a dotted quarter B is eighth and B is a quarter. The long is the dotted quarter)

4. B (8th) B (quarter) L (dotted)

5. L (dotted) L (dotted)

6. BBB (8ths)

Tempus (pl. tempora)
Term used by Garlandia to refer to the basic time unit.
Anonymous IV
Wrote treatise (Magnus liber organi) from about 1275. Was an Englishman. Referred to;two comosers of polyphony assiciated with Notre Dame, Leonin and Perotin. Both Composers studied at the University of Paris which became the center of intellectual inovations.;
Magnus liber organi
“The Great Book of Polyphony.” Anonymous IV credits Leonin for compiling this book. This collection contained two voice settings of the solo portions of the responsorial chants for the major feasts of the church year. The book no longer exists in original form but its contents servived in later manuscripts. Two in Wolfenbuttel Germany and one in Florence Italy. Perotin oand other composers freely altered and added to the collection. The manuscripts offer different settings for the same passages of chant.
Leonin Style
Most of his style is stettings in organum style. However some are punctuated by passages in discant style where both voices move in modal rythm, the tenor usually in mode 5 and the upper part primarily in mode 1.
Anonymous wrote that Perotin edited the Magnus liber and “made very many better ______” This is the Latin word for a clause or phrase in a sentence. He ment a self-contained section of an organum, setting a word to syllable from the chant and closing with a cadence.

New sections within Leonins organum by composers such as Perotin in discant style. Relfect a growing performance for discant. Hundreds appear in the same manuscripts; (Magnus Liber) as the organa themselves; all are unattributed, so we cannot know which are by Perotin.

They exibit a common trait of discant in Perotin’s generation. The tenor isnot just a series of longs as in Leonin’s settings, but repeats a rhythmic motive based on a rhythmic mode. Some clausulae tenors also repeat the melody.

Anonymous IV’s opinion that such clausulae are better than Leonins my reflect the value he placed on this attention to structure. These became very sugnificant in the motet of the thirteenth centuries.

Perotin Organum
Wrote Organa for three or even four voices. A two voice organum was caled organum duplum. a three voice was called organum triplum and a four voice quadruplum. The voices above the tenor were likewise named in ascending order duplum, triplum and quadtruplum.
Polyphonic Conductus

Written by Notre Dame composers and others in Freance, England and elsewhere. These were settings for two to four voices of the same typpes of text used in the closely related genres of monphonic conductus and Aquitanian versus.

It differs form other Notre Dame polyphony in musical features as well as text. the tenor was newly composed rather than taken from chant. Second all voices sing the text together in essentially the same rhythm. The Words are set syllablically for the most part.

Caudae (sing. cauda)
Tail. Melismatic passages at the beginning, end and before important cadences in a conductus. Most of these conductus containing this “tail” are through-composed.

Genre created by Notre Dame composers in the early 13h century by adding newly written Latin words to the upper voices of discant clausulae like texts added to chant melismas.

Over the course of the century, poets and comosers developed three or more voices, or thythmic patterns increasingly free of the rhythmic modes. As conductus and orgnum gradually fell out of fashion in the middle of the century, these became the leading polyphonic genre for both sacred and secular music, evolving from a textual trope of a clausula to a newly-composed piece valued for its complex patterns and multiple layers of meaning.

By 1275 three voice motets became the norm.

cantus firmus
introduced around 1270 by the theorist hieronymus de maravia to desgnate an existing melody, usually a plainchant, on which a new polyphonic swork is based.
Franconian notation
Composer and theorist Franco of Cologne codified the new system of writing from the late thirteenth century. As music became more complex there was a need to devided and subdivide many notes and increase rhythmic variety and complexity. This called for a new notational system. Instead of Longs and Breves his system had fore signs for single notes: double long, long, breve and smibreve.
Franconian motet
new type of motet in which each upper voice has a distictive shape. The upper voices tend to differ in rhythm and the same pattern rarely repeats from one measure to the next in either voice.
English Polyphony
English used distinctive musical dialect. The use of imperfect consonances often in parallel motion. Harmonic thirds and sixths were allowed in the Notre Dme repertory, as we have seen bt were much mre common in English music. Their music was influenced by Notre Dame style particularly was the voice exchange.
Thirteenth century technique taken from Perotin in which two or three phrases, first heard simultaneously each taken up in turn by each of the voices. Thus a voice exchange. These appeared frequently in English conductus fromt he later 13th century. They can be found independently and as motets as well. Close relation ins the Rota.
Close relation to the rondellus. A perpetual canon or round at the unison. The ost famous is sumer is icumen in. form 1250.
Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361)
Frenfch compser, poet, church canon, administrator for the duke of Bourbon and the king of France and later bishp of Meaux is named by one writer as the inventor of a new art (ars nova). Several version of a treatise from 1320 representing Vitry’s teaching, though perhaps not written by him, end with the words ” this completes the Ars nova of Magister Philippe de Vitry”.
Ars Nova
The new art of France;proceeded from two innovtions in rhythmic notation discribed in de Vitry treatise and that in treatises by Jehan des Murs a mathematician and astonomer as welll as music theorist . Term is said to be taken from treatise about Vitry’s teachings and concludes by saying ” and this completes the Ars nova of Magister Philippe de Vitry. Bridged the medieval to the Renaissance. The innovation allowed duple (imperfect) division of note values along with the traditional triple (perfect) division. The second provided for division of the semibreve, formerly the smallest possible note value into minims. Around `340 Murs discussed mesuration signs, symbols that are the ancestors of modern time signatures.
The smallest note value discribed in Murs treatise allowing for much greater rhythmic flexiblilty as well as syncopation. This was a result of ars nova.
Theorist of ars nova recognized two recurring elements in motet tenors, rhythmic and melodic. They called the repeating rhythmic unit this and the reoccuring segment of melody the color. These could be the same length, always beginning and ending together, but most often the coloor extended over two, three, or more of these.
Theorist of ars nova recognized two recurring elements in motet tenors, rhythmic and melodic. They caled the repeating rhythmic unit the atalea and the recurring segment of melody this. Both could be the same length, always beginning and ending together, but most often this extended over two, three, or more taleae. In some motets, the endings of this and the talea do not coincide, so that repetions of this begin in the middle of a talae.
The earliest musical works to exemplify the Ars Nova are the motets of Philippe de Vitry. Most are the three voices with Latin texts probably written by Vitry himself. His motets use this device named by modern scholars meaning equal rhythm, in which the tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm.  In motets of the fourtheenth century the rhythmic patterns are longer and more complex, and the tenor moves so slowly in comparison to the upper voices that it is heard less as a melody than as foundation for the entire polyphonic structure.
Two voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings. These appear in some thrteeth century conductus and motets and are frequently used in fourteeth century isorhythmic works in coordination with recurrences of the talea, as in Vitry motet. Pieces that use this technique extensively are themselves called this name by genre.
Guillaume De Machaut
Leading composer and poet of
Ars Nova. 140 musical works, mostly settings of his own poetry, along with almost three houndred other poems. Composed in most of the geres then curret from motets to secular songs. His mass, Messe de Nostre Dame was one of the earliest polyphonic settings of the Mass Ordinary, probaby the first polyphonic mass to be written by a single composer and conceived as a unit.
formes fixes
(fiexed forms). Name for three poplular genres the virelai, ballade and rondeau. The three genres tend to differ somewhat i subject matter as well as in form. The ballades were the most serious, appropriate for phlosophical or historical thems. These were all derived from genres associated with dancing and evidentby their use of refrains. Machaut set his monophonic songs and polyphonic chasons set to poems to these forms.
A major innovation to Ars Nova period. A polyphonic song in treble dominated style. The upper voices carry the text, called the treble or cantus. This is the primary line. and is supported by a slower-moving tenor witout text. One or two other untexted voices: a contratenor in the same range as the tenor or a fast moving tiplum in the treble range. Machaut was popular with this particular type of song.
Consists of three stanzas, each sung to the same music and each ehding with the same line of poetry, which serves as a refrain. The musical form of the stanza is aab, it resembles bar form, with two couplets sung to the same music (often with open and closed endings) followed by contrasting music for the remainder of the stanza and culminating in the refrain. Machaut wrot ballades with two-three, a four parts but his typical settings were for high male voice with lower voices (for instruments) on the untexted tenor and contratenor.
fin’amors (Occitan) and fine amour (french)
Central theme of troubadours and trouveres meaning courtly love, a term coined in the nineteenth centruy. This was an idealized love through which the lover was himself refined.The object was a real woman, usually another man’s wife but she was adored from a distance, with discretion, respect and humility.
A dance song with a refrain in two phrases whose music is also used for the verse, in the pattern ABaabAB.
bar form
Strophicin the melodic form of AAB. Each A section or Stollen uses the same poetic meter, rhyme scheme, and melody. The B section, Abgesang, is usually longer and may end with all or the latter part of the melody for the stollen. The rhythm is seldom clear in the notation, raising the same issues as in troubdour songs. A form used by Minnesingers in their Minnelieder. Later used in Ballades of composers of Ars Nova such as Machaut.
remsembles the ballade and virelai in having a refrain but differs in two significant ways: it has only one stanza, rather than trhee and the refrain is in two sections and includes all the music. The form can be diagrammed as ABaAabAB, in which capital letters signify therefrain text and the lowercase letters indicate new text set to music from the corresponding section of the refrain. One of three formes fixes the other two are the Ballade and the virelais.
Ars Subtilior

Term given by historians to the repertory of composers of Ars Nova facinated with technique and their willingness to take a given procedure to new extremes.

The refined and elevated style of these songs (chansons: polyphonic ballades, rondeauxs and virelais) is matched by their sumptuous appearance, including fanciful decorations, intermingled red and black notes, ingenious notation and occaional caprices that include a love song written in the shape of a heart.

Italian Trecento
Italians referred to the fourteenth century as the trecento from the years of the 1300’s. Like the French, the music of this period ha a distictive charecter. Included the 14th century Italian madrigal, the cacciaand the ballata.
14th century Italian Madrigal
(not to be confued with the better-known sixteenth-century version) is a song for two or three voices without instrumental accompaniment. All the voices sing the same text, usually an idyllic, pastoral, satirical, or love poem. Consist of two or more three-line stanzas, each set to the same music, followed by a closing par of lines, called retornello (Italian for refrain) set to different music with a different meter.
Parallels with the French chace, in which a popular-style melody is set to strict canon to lively, graphically descriptive words. Was the Italian fashion from 1345-1370 and features two voices in canon at the unison unlike the Frnch and spanish counterparts, it usually has a free untexted tenor in slower motion below. Like madrigals, many have ritornellos which are not always canonic. The word means Hunt referring to one voice chasing after another.
Polyphonic and became popular later than the madrigal and caccia. Shoed some influence from the treble-dominated French chason style. The word originally ment a song to accompany dancing. Thirteenth century versions monophonic dance songs with choral refrains. Although a few early fourteeth century monophonic examples have servived most in manuscripts are for two or three voices and date from about 1365.
Francesco Landini

Leading Italian composer of Ballate. Hof his 140 ballate, 89 are for two voices and 42 are for three voices. Nine survived in both tow and three part versions.

Organist at the monastery of Santa Trinita.

Musicians in the fourteeth through sixteenth centures distiguished between instruments based on their relative loudness. This term meaning “high” and bas meaning “low”. for volume rather than pitch. Among the high instruments were the shams, cornetts (hollowed-out wood, with finger holes and brass-type mouthpiece) and trumpets. Percussive instruments would also be considered high instruments. These instruments were best suited for out of doors.
Low instruments. or soft instruments. Low instruments would include harps, vielles, lutes, psalteries, portative organs, transverse flutes and recorders.
portative organ
12th century instrument small enough to be carried (portatum) or suspended by a strap around the neck. It had a single set of piepes and the right hand played the keys while the left worked the bellows.
positive organ
Had to be placed (positum) on a table to be played. required an assistant to pump the bellows.
Developed in Germany in the 1300s for keyboards. were added to church organs enabling the player to select different ranks of pipes and the addition of a second keyboard were both achievements of the early fifteeth century.
musica ficta
Chromatic alterations. Musicians from the 14th through the 16th centuries often raised or lowered notes by a semitone to avoid the tritone f-b in melody to make a smotother melodic line, to oavoid sounding an augmented fourth or diminshed 5th about the lowest not, or to provide a sweeter sounding harmony at cadences. Two forms of cadences resulted: double leading tone where both upper notes are raised and the Phrygian cadence where the lower voice descends bya a semitone and theupper voice rises a whole tone.