a publisher in Venice who printed the 1st polyphonic book in 1501. From this came important instrumental music and how-to guides for amateurs at home.
soggetto cavato
literally “carved subject.” Ex: Josquin wrote for the Duke of Ferrara: Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae. Each vowel stands for a solfege note, and these notes became the CF for the mass.
paraphrase mass
This mass type takes a preexisting tune, changes it, and places a motif of it in all voices–not just the tenor–with points of imitation, combined with new material by the composer. Ex: Josquin takes the tune of a Vespers hymn in Missa Pange Lingua, p217 Anth
Meant for court entertainment, this type of piece is strophic, homophonic, rustic, tuneful, singable, 4 voices, treble-dominated. Ex: Josquin’s El Grillo (grasshopper).
The German equivalent of a frottola,homophonic, multivoiced, secular, clear phrases/structure, tuneful Italian style, many by Heinrich Isaac.
Choralis Constantinus
written by Heinrich Isaac (a contemp of Josquin), this is a 3 volume monumental text, with 300 settings of proper. It’s used as a guide for CF technique (our theory classes). Weber’s PhD was on this.
Contemps of Josquin
Obrecht- from Burgundy, died of plague in Ferrara, writes the longest mass ever called Missa Maria Zart.
Heinrich Isaac- Fr/Fl, wrote French Chanson, Italian frottolas, German lieder, including Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen.
Pierre de la Rue- maybe wrote Absalon, fili mi. Worked in all courts in Burgundy. Low somber sound.
Generation after Josquin
Nicolas Gambert- pupil of Jos, served HRE Charles V, pedophile with choir boys, wrote Musae Jovis, for Josquin’s death.
Adrian Willaert, Netherlander in Italy, was the 1st maestro di cappella in San Marco, Venice, made it top notch.
Zarlino- student of Willaert, wrote Le istitutioni harmoniche in 1558, aka prima practica, the guide to his generation’s strict composing rules. Taught Andrea Gabrielli, who taught his nephew Gio, who taught….who taught Bach. Yay.
3 stages of Madrigal
1. Early 16th cent. like a frottola with attention to text. diatonic harmony, clear phrases, imit/homo, ex- Jacques Arcadelt’s Il bianco e dolce cigno, about orgasms and swans dying.
2. mid 16 cent.
3. imit/homo, not treble dominated, has 5 voices instead of 4, like frottola–mostly love related, all voices important like in a motet, amateurs couldn’t sing these. Most advanced, adds “color” to music, led by Italians, not Fr/Fl. 5 voices, meant to express text.
1st- finger charts for instruments
2nd- vocal music arranged/transcribed for instruments
basse dance
low dance, down & up moderate gliding courtly dance. ex p358 Anth, specific instruments not expressed.
cori spezzati
“split choirs,” made antiphony based off of chant. Typical Venice, peaks with Gio Gabrielli.
French (lyric) chanson
French equivalent to Italian frottola. About love. less focus on text, more on simplicity.
Programmatic Chanson
a French chanson that depicts scenes, battles, hunts, markets, cackles of women.. ex: La Guerre by Janequin, the master of this craft.
a volume containing the Book of Psalms
Spain’s reaction to complex Burgundians. The rustic peasants mocking the courts. 3-4 voices, syncopation, ABBA form (like virelai/ballata), ex: Cantigas de Santa Maria
paired dances
a slow dance (pavane) with a fast one (galliard). The volta in Italy was a dance involving women thrown up in the air and subsequently injured.
theme & variations
Popular in Spain, called diferencias both there and England. Not fancy. A piece is ornamented and has rhythm/texture changes. Like a paraphrased CF. Found in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
a Harpsichord (another word for the middle word) book with 300 pieces, mostly theme & variations.
meaning to seek out/explore, just like a prelude. An instrumental motet with lots of points of imit. Evolves to fugue.
began as an intabulation of French lyric chanson, but by the late 16th cent was tuneful, lively, had homophony vs counterpoint sections. Evolves into sonata.
Sacrae Symphoniae
meaning “things that sound together” this 1597 comp by Gio Gabrielli has vocal & instrumental music in polychoral (cori spezzati) style.
Augsburg Confession
from 1530, a theological statement of Lutheranism (13 years after the 95 Theses and excommunication. 300 years after this, Mendelssohn wrote the Reformation Symphony)
Metric Psalms
Calvinist hymns (sung in the vernacular), strophic, rhymed translations from throughout the Bible, using either new tunes or old chant tunes. No sensuous polyphony in Calvinism!
(Lutheran) Chorale
a congregational hymn that Luther wrote for public use. Text embodies Lutheran principles, tune is monophonic with sacred German text, like a chant.
Lutheran chorale of a secular song given sacred words
The C of E mass equivalent. Uses chants from the liturgy. 2 kinds:
Great Chapel- long elaborated counterpoint and
Short Royal- syllabic, homophonic
all in English
C of E motet equivalent. 2 kinds:
Full- equiv of motet
Verse- responsorial polyph
all in English
stile antico
coined by Palestrina as the old style. His new style had very controlled dissonance, stepwise fluid melodies, diatonic, pure.
Musica transalpina
“music across the alps” English translation to Italian word-painted madrigals, for courts.
a super rustic, lighter, simpler, comedic/vulgar Italian frottola, mocking the high class frottola/madrigal.
a group of all ranges of an instrument (ex: viols, recorders, etc)