one of the formes fixes in aab form. Textbook shows aabC-aabC-aabC. German equivalent is bar form.
usually 3 stanzas p127 in text

other 2: rondeau & virelai

a fixes formes with the pattern ABaAabAB
only 1 stanza p127 in text

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other 2: ballade & virelai

a fixes formes with the pattern Abba-Abba-Abba (Mihanovic uses AbbaA)
usually 3 stanzas p127 in text

other 2: ballade & rondeau

a.k.a. Decameron, the Italian Ars Nova. New literature includes Dante, Boccaccio, Petrarca. New art includes Giotto, Duccio who made aesthetically pleasing art, not just a Biblical moral lesson. Music focused more on beautiful sound than structure–melismatic, beginning of Bel Canto singing.
Squarcialupi Codex
From the Italian Trecento era, a collection of 14th cent compositions, 354 represent 12 composers. 3 kinds of secular songs with 2-4 voices: madrigal, caccia, ballata.
from the Squarcialupi Codex, this kind of Italian secular music had 2 voices singing of a simple pastoral love. 8 lines:
Terzetto: 1st & 2nd stanzas have the same melody for 3 lines each.
Ritornello: 3rd stanza has 2 lines, its own melody.
In other words, in aab sonnet form.
Ex: p148 Anth, Jacopo de Bologna uses Petrarca’s sonnet about loving Laura in a non-troubadorish and realistic way
from the Squarcialupi Codex, this kind of Italian secular music means “hunt.” 26 survive. Lyrics about chases/hunts, the marketplace, battle. 3 voices- the lowest (the tenor) is slow and often instrumental. Top 2 voices sung in canon–one guy comes in later.
p152 Anth, Gherardello da Firenza is hilarious.
from the Squarcialupi Codex, this kind of Italian secular music was famously composed by Francesco Landini. 140 of his 153 works were this kind. Used Landini cadences. Like virelai form, AbbaA.
p158 Anth. stepwise motion (unlike Machaut’s jumps), 3rds & 6ths. Women probably didn’t perform it then.
Landini cadence
In ballata, go 7-6-8.
location of Avignon

locations of Venice and Florence

(Rome is unnecessary)

location of Istanbul (not Constantinople now)
location of Paris
location of London

locations of France, Italy, Spain, Turkey, England

(England is the largest island directly north of France)

clausula vs substitute clausulae
The first is the original self-contained (removable) section in the organum. The second, which many composers wrote, is a separate section “to replace the original setting of a particular segment of chant”–as an alternative to the first. Both were for discant, and when the top line for the second was given new words, it became a motet.
made by adding new words to the upper voices of discant clausulae, the earliest ones had different lyrics per line in either sacred (Latin) or secular text. Isorhythmic.
cantus firmus
a preexisting line in place of the tenor, the basis of a polyphonic piece.
Ars Antigua
The “old art” referring to organal pre-Vitry, defended by Jacques de Liege in his Speculum Musicae
Ars Nova
The “new art,” a French movement led by Phillipe de Vitry, whose treatise is titled as this term. Characterized by rhythmic innovation (as the “imperfect” duple meter is now allowed), illuminated manuscripts in choirbook format, syncopation, hocket, isorhythm, and musica ficta (a performance practice of adding accidentals, one of which is called the double leading-tone cadence, in which the two upper parts resolve by each going up a half step at the cadence).

Ars Cantus Mensurabilis



written by Franco of Cologne c. 1280, translates to the “art of measuring melody.” He invented mensural notation (note shapes that indicate rhythm) in “perfect” division, in 3.

Long, Breve, Semibreve  p106

literally “equal rhythm,” in which the tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm. A structural device in the cantus firmus of organizing rhythmic and melodic patterns. Consists of talea and color. The most important contribution of Ars Nova.
the repeating rhythmic unit of an isorhythm, whereas the melody can vary
the recurring segment of melody in an isorhythm
in choirbook format, this red 6/8 section (imperfect time, major prolation with a C and a dot) indicated the change of division of a beat, later called hemiola.
literally “hiccup,” the rapid alternation of 2 voices in a (say Vitry) motet
choirbook format

[image]The lines on the bottom make the cantus firmus

The left box is the voice above the c.f., called motetus

The right box is the triplum

Made in beutifully illuminated manuscripts, stresses the individuality of voices.



musica ficta
performance practice of adding accidentals in motets
French secular polyphony in 2-4 voices, written in any of the formes fixes. Treble-dominated. Has no isorhythm (unlike motet). Many written by Machaut.
Ex: rondeau on p137 anth
in chanson, the cantus (line on top) is supported by the lower voices, including the tenor. Either played or sung. Ex: p137 Anth
Messe de Notre Dame
By Machaut c.1360, the first full Mass ever written. More or less random melodies sandwiched together. 4 voices. The shorter texts of the Kyrie, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei were isorhythmic. The longer Gloria and Credo were homophonic, mainly with syllabic text setting.
Be familiar with p127 Anth. The talea is dotted whole note/half note whole note/dotted whole note. The chant has 28 notes.
Mass (setting of ordinary)
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei…
The motto mass has a head-motive (the same melodic motive at the start of each movement), the CF mass adds a CF to the use of head-motive and puts it in the tenor with different harmonies around it for each movement.
Ars Subtilior
literally “subtler art,” the late 14th cent result of Ars Nova in the court of Avignon and N. Italy. Meant for elite and educated audiences, more complex than Ars Nova, e.g. complex rhythms involved conflicting meters in different voices. Refined and elevated style was matched by beautiful manuscripts, and some music was written in curves–a love song in the shape of a heart, a canon in a circle. p141 Anth.
Johannes Ciconia (Flemish from Flanders, now Belgium/NE France) wrote in all styles & languages available at the time. Handout- virelai, changing meters, measure 11 is the same as Caserta’s measure 1. (Caserta was a theorist/composer at Avignon and coined Ars Subtilior.) Changing meters were appreciated in courts, abandoned til the 20th cent.
Contenance angloise
The “English manner,” the sweet English sound of the 1400 and on, with simple stepwise melodies, syllabic text setting, homophonic texture, and tertian sonorities of 3rds and 6ths. Text and word portrayal became important.
Ex p165 Anth by Dunstable who led the English style
Influenced by the English, the “improvisational” technique of singing the middle voice between moving 6ths in sacred music so that the chord is always a 1st inversion. So you sing a P4 below the top line, a 3rd above the bottom–called parallel 6/3 chords
Motto Mass
a mass that only uses a head-motive (a starting melodic motive for each movement)
cantus firmus mass
a mass that adds a CF to the use of head-motive and puts it in the tenor with different harmonies around it for each movement.
Missa Caput
probably by Dunstable, this mass had standard choral 4-voice texture, with the CF in the tenor. Likely meant as a Mass for Ascension which before Easter retells of how Christ beheaded the devil. Ockeghem writes his own version.
“law,” a round, ex: caccia.
mensuration canon
as in Ockeghem’s Missa Prolationum, voices sing one melody at different speeds by following the mensuration signs.
Mensuration signs


9/8 is perfect time major prolation

3/4 is perfect time minor prolation

6/8 is imperfect time major prolation

2/4 is imperfect time minor prolation

from Ars Subtilior

1-division of breve in 3 (tempus perfectum) or 2 (tempus imperfectum)
2-divided into 3 (major) or 2 (minor) minims (8th notes)
time of 100 Years War (115 years)
birth and death of Machaut
birth and death of Dufay
fall of Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium)
time of 100 Years War (115 years)
birth and death of Machaut
birth and death of Dufay
fall of Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium)
14th century events
1-Church’s authority declined. One elected pope didn’t want to live in Rome, staying in Avignon for the wine. Then in the Western Schism, Rome elected its own. At one time there was a 3rd pope in Pisa.
2-100 (115) Years War (1338-1453) between France & England. The Duchy of Burgundy (in N. France, near England) became rich. Rich people fund musicians and artists.
3-Great Plague 1348-1350. In 2 years 1/3-1/2 of Europe died. Thinking it was Judgment Day, composers either partied and wrote or prayed and wrote.
This was the Century of Humanism–celebrating power of the individual, that life can be fun. Age of Dante, Petrarch, Chaucer. Giotto painted in 3D and with emotion, not giving Bible/morality lessons, with naked women.
Organal became dull, called Ars Antigua. The new art was Ars Nova.
stylistic features and innovations of Ars Nova
Phillipe de Vitry, a French poet/composer/theorist, wrote a treatise called Ars Nova ~1320 using all the styles described on the Ars Nova flashcard.
Guillame de Machaut (know 1300-1377), a famous poet/priest/composer, born in Champagne, a choirboy in Reims, studied in Paris, advised ans was affiliated with royalty. Wrote many poems on his many travels. Always signed his work to leave a mark. Wrote sacred and secular music, 23 motets, 70+ polyphonic songs, and the Messe de Notre Dame (see other flashcard).
Secular songs- virelais (like Trouveres) p133 Anth. Chansons, treble-dominated, p137 Anth.
Motets- mostly isorhythmic, secular & sacred–6 in Latin, 17 in French. Have puzzles, fine points, & wordplay to entertain educated nobles. Most have the cantus on top supported by 2-3 voices. Wrote Inviolata genitrix (in Latin, about Mary, not in Anth) to pray for mercy while Reims was under siege. First there’s 1 voice, then 2 others come in. Florid, complex.
Dufay’s style and work
Know ca.1397-1474. His travel resulted in a French/Italian/English truly international style. p179 Anth- sort of a ballade, but he & other composers rebelled so it’s through-composed.
French style- varied rhythm, structure, syncopation
Italian style- lyrical melodies, syllabic text setting with decorative melismas on end syllables
English style- tertian consonant harmonies, controlled dissonance, stepwise melodies, clear phrases
Wrote monomasses- unified by introductory motifs
Wrote 4 CF masses. Could be isorhythmic- with diminution or augmentation
Retrograde- write CF backwards
Inversion- invert 3rds/6ths
Embellishment- add decorative notes
Paraphrase- add/omit notes in CF
Missa Se la face ay pale p180 Anth- used a secular tune as CF. Repeated CF for Gloria/Credo 3 times with 3:2:1 diminution. Sections start with duet in top 2 voices. In English style (clear phrases, stepwise, tertian sonorities) with Italian melisma at end.
Superius (highest)- most interesting, Altus- filler harmonies, Tenor- CF structure, Bassus- directs harmonic motion.
Missa l’homme arme- “armed man” probably a drinking song named after a bar of this name, “beware…wear an iron coat” because in 1453 Byzantium collapsed with the Turkish invasion. Ockeghem used this CF. In the Agnus Dei’s 3rd section, the crab riddle.
Wrote 24 motets- some chansons, free, isorhythmic (after it was cool).
Composed for Nuper Rosarum Flores- Terribilis est locus iste.
Terribilis est locus iste
by Dufay, on 3/25/1436. for Nuper Rosarum Flores, this CF is still used for current church consecrations. For the Basilica de Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. GOOGLE IMAGE IT! For the double vaulted duomo (dome) 2 tenors with 14 notes each, adding to 28, Ana’s favorite number. 4 sections had different prolations (time signatures). The rhythms related to the dimensions of the cross-shaped outline of the building.