administered distribution
the distribution of products from a smaller independent label is handled by one of the major labels
backward vertical integration
a retail company develops its own in-house manufacturing facilities for products sold in its stores
call to action
a statement usually found near the conclusion of a commercial message that summons the consumer to act

ex: “call today” “watch at 11”

channel intermediaries
commonly known as middlemen; involved in the intermediate steps of distribution between the manufacturer and the retailer
channels of distribution
various methods of distributing and ultimately delivering products to the consumer
competition-based pricing
attempts to set prices based on those charged by the company’s competitors
contractual distribution systems
arrangements for distribution are made between an independent manufacturer and an independent distributor; usually involves a contract
consumer-based pricing
using the buyer’s perceptions of value to determine the retail price, a reversal from the cost-plus approach
corporate systems of distribution
a manufacturer handles its distribution internally
cost-based pricing
determining retail price based on the cost of product development and manufacturing, marketing and distribution, and company overhead, and then adding desired profit
diffusion of innovations
the process by which the use of an invention or product is spread within a market group, over time and over various categories of adopters
forward vertical integration
manufacturer buys or develops means of distribution or retailing
of, or relating to, or marked by pleasure
internal marketing audit
first two steps of the SWOT analysis whereby the internal strengths and weakness of the organization are analyzed
amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation and decision processes of consumer behavior
loss leader pricing
featuring of items priced below cost or relatively low prices to attract customers to the retail store
performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer; involves satisfying customer needs or desires
marketing mix
blend of product, distribution, promotion and pricing strategies designed to produce mutually satisfying exchanges with the target market
4 P’s
price, product, placement, promotion
price fixing
practice of 2+ sellers agreeing on the price to charge for similar products (illegal)
product class
group of products that are homogenous or generally considered as substitutes for each other
product form
products of the same form make up a group within a product class
product life cycle (PLC)
the course that a product’s sales and profits take over what is referred to as the lifetime of the product
product positioning
customer’s perception of a product in comparison with the competition’s product
pull strategy
company directs its marketing activities toward the final consumer, creating a demand for the product that will ultimately be fulfilled as requests for product are made from the consumer
push strategy
pushing the product through the distribution channel to its final destination through incentives aimed at retail and distribution
situation analysis
systemic collection and study of past and present data to identify trends, forces, and conditions with the potential to influence the performance of the business and the choice of appropriate strategies
SWOT analysis
strengths, weakness, opportunities, threats; examination of both the internal factors (S&W) and external factors (O&R)
slotting fees
fees paid by manufacturers to have their products made available in retail stores; fees guarantee product will be stocked on the shelves for the specified period of time
vertical integration
merger of firms at different stages of production and/or distribution
area of dominant influence
feelings, emotions, moods
behavioral segmentation
based on actual customer behavior toward products
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing and remembering
represents intention, behavior and action
consumer behavior
dynamic interaction of affect and cognition, behavior, and environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of their lives
parcels of text sent by a server to a web browser and then sent back unchanged by the browser each time it accesses that server; main purpose=identify users and possibly prepare customized web pages for them
designated marketing area; geographic area surrounding a city in which the broadcasting stations based in that city account for a greater share of the listening or viewing households than do broadcasting stations based in nearby cities
geographic segmentation
dividing the market into different geographical units such as town, cities, states, regions, and countries; may also be segmented depending upon population density such as urban, suburban or rural
amount of time and effort a consumer invests in the search, evaluation and decision process of consumer behavior
a set of all actual and potential buyers of a product; includes anyone who has an interest in the product and has the ability and willingness to buy
market segmentation
process of dividing a large market into smaller segments of consumers that are similar in characteristics, behavior, wants or needs; resulting segments are homogenous with respect to characteristics that are most vital to the marketing efforts
people born between 1982 and 1995; aka “net generation” because they grew up with the internet
personal demographics
basic measurable characteristics of individual consumers and groups such as age, gender, ethnic background, education, income, occupation and marital status
psychographic segmentation
dividing customers into groups based upon lifestyles, personality, opinions, motives or interests
target market
set of buyers who share common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve
user status
consumer’s relationship with the product and brand; involves level of loyalty
web analytics
the use of data collected from a website to determine which aspects of the web site work toward the business objectives
web data mining
web usage mining is the application that uses data mining to analyze and discover interesting patterns of user’s usage data on the web; usage data records the user’s behavior when the user browses or makes transactions on the website
Bertelsmann Music Group; one of the major labels, now in partnership with Sony
older album releases that still have some sales potential
recent catalog
released for over 18mo. but less than 36mo.
deep catalog
released for over 36mo.
catalog sales
sales of records that have been in the marketplace for over 18mo.
dollar value
monetary worth of a stated quantity of shipped product multiplied by the manufactrurers suggested retail price of a single unit; given in US dollars
Electrical and Mechanical Industries; one of the major labels
logarithmic scale
scale of measurement that varies logarithmically with the quantity being measured; constant ratio scale in which equal distances on the scale represent equal ratios of increase; method of displaying data in powers of 10 to yield maximum range while keeping resolution at the low end of the scale
market share
brand’s share of the total sales of all products within the product category in which the brand competes; market share is determined by dividing a brand’s sales volume by the total category volume
peer-to-peer (P2P)
electronic file swapping systems that allow users to share files, computing capabilites, networks, bandwidth, and storage
product configuration
any variety of delivery system on which prerecorded music is stored; various music storage/delivery mediums include the full-length CD album, CD single, cassette album or single, vinyl album or single, mini-disc, dual-disc, DVD-audio, DVD, or VHS music video
replacement cycle
consumers replacing obsolete collections of vinyl records an cassettes with a newer compact disc format
Sony Music Entertainment, one of the major labels; SME purchased the music division BMG from Bertelsmann AG
track equivalent albums (TEA)
ten track downloads are counted as a single album; total sales of all downloaded singles are divided by 10 and the resulting figure is added to album downloads and physical album units to give a total picture of album sales; implemented to be able to compare current unit sales with sales prior to digital track downloads, when the industry was almost exclusively album-oriented
Universal Music Group, one of the major labels
units shipped
quantity of product delivered by a recording manufacturer to retailers, record clubs, and direct and special markets, minus any returns for credit on unsold product
Warner, Elektra, Atlantic; distribution arm of Warner Music Group
Warner Music Group, one of the major labels
process of identifying and assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data
comma separated values (CSV)
file format used for the digital storage of data structured in a table of lists form, where each associated item/member in a group is in association with others also separated by the commas of its set; often used for moving tabular data between two different computer programs
concept testing
evaluating ideas by providing an early indicator of the merits of an idea prior to the commitment of resources to development and manufacturing
custom research
research that is tailored, proprietary, initiated by a company, and often specific to a particular product developed by that company

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

ex: product surveys, focus groups, customer satisfaction surveys, personal interviews

data analysis
application of logic to the data, looking for systematic patterns and details that will answer research questions
descriptive research
research designed to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon
form of research in which conditions are controlled so that an independent variable can be manipulated to test a hypothesis about a dependent variable
executive summary
bulleted-list summary of the highlights of the findings designed to be read by the people who need to know the main points but do not have time to read through the report to find them
exploratory research
initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of the problem
focus groups
unstructured, free-flowing group interviews designed to gain a deeper understanding of consumer feelings, beliefs and attitudes
data collection form, such as a questionnaire or other measuring device
margin of error
statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey’s results; larger MOE=less faith that the results are close to the true figures for the whole population
marketing research
systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation facing a company
measurement scales
any series of items on a survey that have been scientifically designed to measure or test a concept
research report
oral presentation or written statement of research results, strategic recommendations, and/or other conclusions given to the marketing client
small representative subsection of the market segment used as a basis for analysis in research
sample design
procedure by which a particular sample is chosen from a population
sampling frame
actual set of units from which a sample has been drawn
secondary research
going over data that was previously collected, described or analyzed for a related project other than this one at hand
syndicated research
gathering of continuous or periodic information that is sold in standardized form to all companies involved in the industry

ex: Arbitron, Nielsen, BDS, SoundScan

application and combination of several research methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon
ability of a scale to measure what is intended to be measured
something that can be changed such as a characteristic or value
monies fronted to artists to assist them with living expenses
breakeven point
level of sales or production at which the total costs and total revenue of a business are equal
card price
wholesale price, or dollar figure set by the distribution company that sells the product
click and buy
allows web visitors to click on a link or object for immediate purchase
CDs and other recorded music products that fail to sell at retail and are returned to the distributor for a refund
sell-off percentage
percent of inventory shipped to the marketplace that has already been sold
marketing term for the practice of suggesting higher priced products or services to a customer who is considering a purchase
portable chunk of code that can be installed an executed within any separate HTML-based web page by an end user without requiring additional editing or knowledge of HTML programming