Attempt to unify a group of people by creating a national identity
An escape from modern city life untilizing customs and musical influences of countries other than your own
Reminiscence motif
Distinctive theme from earlier scenes that serve as a unifying factor
Name Verdi’s most popular operas
Rigoletto, Il Trovatore, La Traviata, Aida, Otello, Falstaff
Nineteenth-century operatic MOVEMENT that presents everyday people in familiar situations, often depicting sordid or brutal events.
List 2 operatic examples of verismo

Cavalleria Rusticana – Mascagni

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I Pagliacci – Leoncavallo

The most successful Italian opera comoser after Verdi
Giacomo Puccini
Manon Lescant, La Boheme, Tosca, Mdm Butterfly, Turandot
The most popular operas by Puccini
Who was the term “music drama” associated with?
Richard Wagner
In an OPERA or MUSIC DRAMA, a MOTIVE, THEME, or musical idea associated with a person, thing, mood, or idea, which returns in original or altered form throughout.
Define Gesamtkunstwerk
Term coined by Richard Wagner for a dramatic work in which poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music all work together toward one artistic expression.
Rienzi, Die fliegende Hollander, Tannhauser, Lohegrin, Der Ring des Nibelungen were all operas by whom?
The first Russian composer to be recognized by both Russians and his international counterparts as an equal to his Western contemporaties.
Life of a Tsar was composed by whom
“The Mighty Handful” or commonly referred to as the Russian 5
;Balakirev,;Borodin, Cui, Musorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov
Considered to be the most original of the Russian 5
The best orchestrator of the Russian 5
Trademark scales of Russian music of the late 19th cen and early 20th cen
Wholetone and Octatonic
Composer who established the early Czech nationalist identity




The focus of the dispute in German-speaking lands that polarized around Brahms and Wagner

New music vs Traditional


program vs absolute


Extramusical vs traditional


(all were cited)

How many symphonies did Brahms write?
Why did Brahms write so few symphonies
They would all be compared to Beethoven
Who is Brahms the orchestral and chamber music successor to
How does Brahms’ German Requiem differ from the Latin Requiem

Brahms takes his text from the Apocrypha, old and new testament and not from the traditional latin mass.


This is also the first instance that a mass was written for the living and not the dead

Who wrote “On the Beautiful in Music”?
Promoted absolute music and stated that music should stand on its own rather than incorporating anything outside of music (program or text)
Credited with creating the symphonic poem
Term coined by Franz Liszt for a one-movement work of PROGRAM MUSIC for orchestra that conveys a poetic idea, story, scene, or succession of moods by presenting THEMES that are repeated, varied, or transformed.
symphonic poem
A method devised by Franz Liszt to provide unity, variety, and a narrative-like logic to a composition by transforming the thematic material into new THEMES or other elements, in order to reflect the diverse moods needed to portray a PROGRAMMATIC subject.
Thematic transformation
Name four symphonic poems written by Stauss
Don Juan, Till Eulenspiegel, Sprach Zorathustra, Don Quixote
Technique used by Strauss in Don Quixote to represent the sheep
Compostition inspired by Musorgsky’s late friend Victor Hartmann’s artwork
Pictures at an Exhibition
Ma Vlast represents which genre?

Symphonic poem


(cycle of 6)

Who composed Ma Vlast?
Dvorak believed these to be the source of national music for the United States
American Indians and African Americans
Dvorak’s compositions that exemplify US nationalism
New World Symphony and String Quartet #12 in F Major
What painting by whom established Impressionism?
Impression Sunrise by Monet
Impressionism characteristics (painting)

caturing a moment in time

Unfinished brush strokes

effect of light on a subject

brought painter outside

What two genres;did;Mahler typically write?

Orchestral song cycle



Name two Mahler song cycles with orchestra



Das Lied von der Erde

How do Debussy’s piano works represent a continuation of the 19th cen. character piece?
Evocative titles
What is Debussy’s “L’apres midi d’un faune” based on?
Mallarme’s poem “Afternoon of a Fawn”
Pelleas et Melisande
Debussy’s only completed opera
Descibe Satie’s aesthetic
Spare, dry, capricious, brief, repetitive, paradistic, WHITTY, detached, emotionless
radical break from the musical language of their predecessors and contemporaries while maintaining strong links to the tradition.
A form of ATONALITY based on the systematic ordering of the twelve notes of the CHROMATIC scale into a ROW that may be manipulated according to certain rules.
Twelve-tone method
Term for music that avoids establishing a central pitch or tonal center (such as the TONIC in TONAL music)
Schoenberg painted in this style
Schoenberg’s 2 most well known students
Berg and Webern
The name of Schoenberg’s society for new music
The society for private music performance
The second Viennese School
Schoenberg, Webern, Berg
Freeing dissonance from its need to resolve to a consonance
The emancipation of dissonance – Schoenberg
A collection of PITCH-CLASSES that preserves its identity when transposed, inverted, or reordered and used MELODICALLY or HARMONICALLY.
Pitch class set
Early-twentieth-century term derived from art, in which music avoids all traditional forms of “beauty” in order to express deep personal feelings through exaggerated gestures, angular MELODIES, and extreme DISSONANCE.

What genre did Pierre Lunaire illustrate?


Who was the poet?


What is the unique vocal style used?

Melodrama, song cycle


Albert Giraud



The four way a 12 tone row may be represented

row – prime



retrograde inversion

Who comissioned Stravinsky’s Ballets and where and what group premiered them.

Sergei Diaghilev


Ballet Russes



Three divisions of Stravinsky’s career

Russian Period – Firebird


Neo-classical period – Pulcinella


Serial Period – In memoriam Dylan Thomas

Describe how Bartok represents early ethnomusicology
Blended rythmic, melodic and formal characteristics of peasant music with classical and modern traditions
Group of French composers that went against convention in all aspects of life
Les Six
Who made up the Les Six
Poulenc, Milhaud, Honnegar, Aurie, Tallefaire, Durey
Who was the inspiration of the Les Six
Term from the 1920s to describe music that was socially relevant and useful, especially music for amateurs, children, or workers to play or sing.
German Composer associated with Gebrauchsmusik
What is Carl Orff’s best known work
Carmina Burana
Who was Carl Orff’s source for Carmina
What area of music study are Orff and Kodaly best known for?
Music education/methods
A doctrine of the Soviet Union, begun in the 1930s, in which all the arts were required to use a realistic approach (as opposed to an abstract or symbolic one) that portrayed socialism in a positive light. In music this meant use of simple, accessible language, centered on MELODY, and patriotic subject matter.
Socialist Realism
Who were the two leading soviet composrs between the World Wars?
Shostakovitch and Prokofiev
Term coined by Henry Cowell for a CHORD of DIATONIC or CHROMATIC seconds.
Tone Cluster
Composer associated with Tone Clusters
Henry Cowell
What technique is utilized in The Aolian Harp and The Banshee?
Plucking or strumming on the strings
Describe Copland’s Americanist Style
Spaciousness, simple melodies and harmonies, Jazz and strong dissonance
Which Copland work is based on a Shaker hymn and exhibits the Americanist style
Appalacian Spring
How does William Grant Still combine Nationalism and Western European tradition
Traditional 4 mvt symphony with African American influences of call and response, Jazz, dialogue, sync. and pop/comercial
Where was Messiaen’s Quartet for the End of Time written and first performed
POW camp
The application of the principles of the TWELVE-TONE METHOD to musical parameters other than pitch, including duration, intensities, and TIMBRES. See SERIAL MUSIC.
Total serialism
How does George Crumb bring innovation to ordinary instruments and objects?
new sounds with ordinary things:  musical saw, harmonica, mandolin, tibetian prayer stones, Japanese temple bells and electric piano
Name three George Crumb compositions

Vox balaenae


Ancient Voices of Children


Black Angels





Term coined by composers working in Paris in the 1940s for music composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds, working “concretely” with sound itself rather than with music NOTATION.
Musique concrete
Who is associated with musique concrete
Pierre Schaeffer
early electronic inst. controlled w/o contact from player.  Consists of 2 metal antennae which sense the players hand position controlling frequency and amplitude
Virtually the same as a theremin but larger with more controls
Ondes Martenot
Who wrote Poeme electronique and what generated the sounds?
Varese – combines electronic and recorded sounds through 425 speakers (in first performance)
Who wrote Threnody: To the Victimes of Hiroshima?
Approach to composing music pioneered by John Cage, in which some of the decisions normally made by the composer are instead determined through random procedures, such as tossing coins. Chance differs from INDETERMINACY but shares with it the result that the sounds in the music do not convey an intention and are therefore to be experienced only as pure sound.
Chance music
An approach to composition, pioneered by John Cage, in which the composer leaves certain aspects of the music unspecified. Should not be confused with CHANCE.
Who pioneered chance music and indeterminacy
John Cage
One of the leading musical styles of the late twentieth century, in which materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures simplified so that what is going on in the music is immediately apparent. Often characterized by a constant pulse and many repetitions of simple RHYTHMIC, MELODIC, or HARMONIC patterns.
Name Five Musical artists associated with Minimalism
Riley, Reich, Glass, John Adams, Young
Who wrote Einstein on the Beach – a minimalist opera
Phillip Glass
Who wrote Nixon in China – a minimalist opera
John Adams
Trend in the late twentieth century that blurs the boundaries between high and popular art, and in which styles of all epochs and cultures are equally available for creating music.
Post modernism
African popular music which merges popular styles from all cultures with traditional music from Africa.
World Beat