Cootie Williams
played trumpet, known for jungle sounds
Scott Lafaro
bassist, worked with Bill Evans Trio
What doesn’t belong in bebop?
brass & reeds
The preferred instrumentation for bebop was:
Small groups
I Got Rhythm was written by:
George Bushwin
What is the common format of a band in the swing period?
5 saxophones, 3-4 trumpets, 3-4 trombones, piano, bass, guitar, and drums
Lester Young influenced who?
Count Basie, saxophonists
What is the order of the “Big 6”?
1) Louis Armstrong 2) Duke Ellington 3) Charlie Parker 4) Miles Davis 5) John Coltrane 6) Bill Evans
What was the problem with jazz waltz?
Problem with jazz waltz is ? time which was hard to get to get to swing first.
Miles Davis took music in the 60’s funk and fusion with what record album?
Bitches Brew
Who was the King of Swing?
Benny Goodman
Standard group of a hard bop was a ________. It consisted of what instruments?
Quintet~ (1) Piano (2) Bass (3) Drums (4) Trumpet (5) Tenor Saxophone
Miles Davis used what instrument device.
Harmon Mute
What direction does the music go in counterpoint?
What is the lengthening or widening of rhythms?
“Music should make you wanna dance, sing or pray.” Who says this?
Jimmy Maxwell
When units of poetry don’t coincide with the verse is __________.
What does the instrumentation of Swing consisits of?
5 saxophones, 3-4 trumpets, 3-4 trombones, piano, bass, guitar, and drums.
A feeling. 12 bars, 3 sections of 4 bars each.
Form of many standard tunes. 32 bars long, 4 sections of 8 bars each. Includes a bridge.
Notes that lend color to the sound of a chord or scale.
T/F: Herbie Handcock was committed to playing true jazz?
T/F: Ron Carter is a well known bassist?
changing density of the chords per minute…
changes the harmonic rhythm
At the end of the 1960’s Miles Davis moved his music to?
jazz fusion
Miles Davis and his nonet used what unusual instrumentation?
French horn and Tuba
Ornette Coleman invented a concept called?
Free jazz omitted?
Birdland was performed by?
Weather Report
Who plays piano and sings way behind the beat?
Shirley Horn
This sax player used “scooping” of the pitch as expressive gestures?
Johnny Hodges
Who played “Lord, what fool these mortals be”?
Clark Terry
Ahmad Jamal played?
Duke Ellington used this vocalist in Come Sunday?
Mahalia Jackson
The word funk comes from?
hard bop
Ellington’s film score was:
Anatomy of a Murder
Jaco Pastorius
bass player with weather report, think Charlie Pace
the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony.
group known for adding rock elements to jazz
Weather Report
important names associated with Weather Report
Joe Zawinul, Miroslav Vitous
characteristics of Weather Report
used collective improvisation, emancipation of traditional roles in the rhythm section, little distinction between soloist and accompanist.
had a pianoless quartet
Chet Baker/Gerry Mulligan
Django Rheinhart
Belgian gypsy guitarist
1928 – Lost 2 fingers in a fire. Compensated with a new technique.
Un-amplified – unlike Charlie Christian
Quintette du Hot Club de France
First outstanding European Jazz Musician
Art Blakey
Drummer and leader of the Jazz Messengers
Epitomized the loosening of jazz drumming styles.
Used loud intrusions as accompanimental figures.
Stan Getz
American jazz saxophonist, important name in Latin Jazz, helped develop the bossa nova structure
Art Tatum
Severely limited vision
Amazing Technique & velocity at piano
Willow Weep for Me
Tiger Rag
John Coltrane
Tenor & Soprano Sax
After Charlie Parker, the most widely imitated saxophonist in Jazz.
Came to fame in 1955 with the Miles Davis quintet.
Worked with Monk in 1957, an important period.
Addiction to drugs/alcohol disrupted his career.
Clifford Brown
Worked with Sonny Rollins (Sax) and Max Roach (Drums)
Long fluid lines, reminiscent of bebop.
Died in auto accident at age 25.
worked with Clifford Brown extensively
Sonny rollins
Dave Brubeck
Admired as a composer, not as a pianist.
Worked with Paul Desmond (Alto sax).
Mastery of “odd” meters. incorporated classical European elements into his music
Herbie Hancock
Watermelon Man (2 versions)
Wanted to hire not jazz musicians who could play funk but to hire funk musicians who could play jazz.
Very electronic, lots of studio production and overdubs.
Platinum selling album.
Thelonious Monk
Unorthodox composer, his work seriously challenged improvisers.
Able to play as if he could “bend” notes.
Used melodic, cell development. (Straight, No Chaser)
Minimum amount of material.
Called “High Priest of Bop”
Main composer of Latin Jazz
Antonio Carlos Jobim
Billy Strayhorn
Ellington’s “alter ego”
Co-wrote much of the music during this period
Liked to compose is “dark” keys
Wrote Take the A Train, Lush Life (age 18), and collaborated on the suites
Flourished in Ellington’s shadow
It was difficult to discern where one’s style ended and the other’s began.
Pat Metheny
One of the biggest names in jazz in 70s and 80s.
Guitarist, he worked with pianist Lyle Mays.
Spacious and open sounds.
Some of his music falls into the “new age” category.
Neo-traditional championed by
Wynton Marsalis (preservationists)
Postmodernism championed by
John Zorn (freedom fighters)
composed Thesaurus of Musical Scales
Nicholas Slonimsky
Bill Evans was high influenced by
French impressionist Maurice Ravel
vocalist with unique vibrato
Sidney Bechet
Lester Young influenced who?
saxophonists of West Coast jazz
Blue Rondo Ala Turk, Dave Brubeck
coined the term “harmolodic”
Ornette Coleman
simultaneous soundings of a single melodic line, in different tonalities, pitches, or keys.
Such Sweet Thunder
Duke Ellington
Star Crossed Lovers
Duke Ellington
Differences between Brazilian and Afro Cuban styles of Latin Music
ALL Cuban music fits inside a clave rhythm
All Cuban music descends from something significantly religious
More ‘high octane’
Brazilian music melded into jazz and changed, but Afro-Cuban music was lifted straight from its culture and changed very little until the 1980’s.
Differences between Brazilian and Afro Cuban styles of Latin Music
ALL Cuban music fits inside a clave rhythm
All Cuban music descends from something significantly religious
More ‘high octane’
Brazilian music melded into jazz and changed, but Afro-Cuban music was lifted straight from its culture and changed very little until the 1980’s.
used equal contribution style
Bill Evans trio with bassist Scott LaFarro & drummer Paul Motian
Usually thought of as a piano genre. Does not swing.
It has an even division of the beat, and comes from the military march form.
Miles Davis’ first quintet
Paul Chambers
Wynton Kelly
Bill Evans
Jimmy Cobb
John Coltrane
Cannonball Adderley
Miles Davis’ second quintet
Wayne Shorter (Saxophone)
Herbie Hancock (Piano)
Tony Williams (Drums)
Ron Carter (Bass)
evolution of jazz
Early Jazz
Cool Jazz (West Coast)
Hard Bop
Post Bop
Free Jazz
developments of swing era
Arranging became important.
Big Band became the standard group.
Consolidation of the rhythm section to piano, bass, drums, and perhaps guitar, tuba and banjo died out.
Consolidation of the drum set to that as we know it today – Bass drum, snare, hi-hat, tom-tom and cymbals.
played on all four beats; emphasis on each beat equally
proponent of Kansas City Style Swing
Count Basie
one of the most influential saxophonists; played with a light, airy sound
Lester Young
musical characteristics of Duke Ellington
Emphasized the personal sounds of his players.
Took the idiom of jazz into the format of “extended works”.
Voiced across sections of the band.
Often wrote more than one version of a particular tune.
He transcended the chorus bound limitations of arranging.
had a historically important engagement at the Cotton Club
Duke Ellington
the golden mean
the ratio of the short half to the long half is equal to the ratio of the long half to the whole
Common format (instrumentation) of swing period group
5 saxophones, 3-4 trumpets, 3-4 trombones, piano, bass, guitar, and drums
another definition of smooth jazz
instrumental pop music
Sheets of Sound – what is it and who used this technique?
John Coltrane, eighth note progressions
bebop characteristics
Name comes from the sound of the music.
Dominated by the saxophone.
Musicians tried to rise from entertainer to artist.
Many compositions were written over the changes of other popular tunes.
Ornette Coleman instrument
Cootie Williams instrument
Scott Lafarro instrument
Jaco Pastorious instrument
electric bass
Chet Baker instrument
Django Reinhardt instrument
Paul Chambers instrument
Paul Chambers instrument
Art Blakey instrument
Stan Getz instrument
Art Tatum instrument
John Coltrane instrument
Clifford Brown instrument
Sonny Rollins instrument
tenor sax
Dave Brubeck instrument
Herbie Hancock instrument
Thelonious Monk instrument
Charlie Christian instrument
Billy Strayhorn instrument
Benny Goodman instrument
Duke Ellington instrument
Count Basie instrument
Gil Evans instrument
Pat Betheny instrument
Chick Corea instrument
Wynton Marsalis instrument
hard bop era
50’s – 60’s
Art Blakey era
hard bop
Clifford Brown era
hard bop
Count Basie era
Lester Young era
Duke Ellington era
bebop era
early 40’s – mid 50’s
stylistic aspects of bebop
Bop improvisation was more complex
Melodic chromaticism
Harmonies were more complex in bop
(Much more chromatic)
Comping was more prevalent than stride style and simple, on-the-beat chording
Surprise was more highly valued in bop.
Bop was a more agitated style than swing.
Charlie Parker era
Thelonious Monk era
Dave Brubeck era
cool jazz
Chet Baker era
cool jazz
Gerry Mulligan era
cool jazz
used triple meter
John Coltrane