aleatoric music
chance, different every time, duration rather than meter.
interest in music for its own sake or in modernism. term used in the Soviet Union when the government tried to controlled every aspect of society, including the arts. Socialist realism was the ideal for Soviet arts.
Les Six
“to free French music from foreign domination” inspired by Erik Satie. Durey, Honegger, Poulenc, Tailleferre, Auric, Milhaud.
octatonic scale
alternates whole steps and half steps. Debussy and Bartok used it.
represents the primitive or elemental through pulsation rather than meter, static repetition, unprepared and unresolved dissonance, dry timbres. The Rite of Spring, Stravinsky.
music that uses the twelve-tone method. extended the principles to series in rhythm, as well as pitch. also applies to Schoenberg and his students.
avoids establishing a central pitch or tonal center.
term derived from art. used for music that evokes moods and visual imagery. colorful harmony and instrumental timbre. Debussy: Nuages.
early 20th century term derived from art. Music avoids all traditional forms of “beauty” in order to express deep personal feelings. Exaggerated gestures, angular melodies, extreme dissonance.
19th and 20th century trend in music. composers were eager to embrace elements in their music that claimed a national identity.
trend in music from 1910s to 1950s. composers revived, imitated, or evoke the styles, genres, and forms of pre-Romantic music.
“speaking voice” vocal style developed Schoenberg. the performer approximates the written pitches in the gliding tones of speech while following the notated rhythm.
one of the leading musical styles of the late 20th century. materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures simplified so that what is going on in the music is immediately apparent. often characterized by a constant pulse and repetitions of simple rhythmic, melodic, or harmonic patterns.
integral serialism
application of the principles of the 12-tone method. Students applied it to other musical parameters other than pitch. this included duration, intensities, and timbres. Milton Babbitt
phase music
socialist realism
doctrine of the Soviet Union, begun in the 1930s. all arts were required to use a realistic approach (as opposed to an abstract or symbolic one) that portrayed socialism in a positive light. Simple, accessible language, centered on melody, and patriotic subject matter.
electronic music
music based on sounds that are produced or modified through electronic means
computer music
part experimentation, part sound sculpture. Charles Dodge: computer-synthesized vocal sounds, mixing lifelike imitations of speech with transformations that change vowels into noise or natural inflections into melodies. create word-like music.
musique concrete
“concrete music” term coined by composers working in Paris in the 1940s for music composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds. working “concretely” with sound itself rather than with music notation.
Eszterhazy Court
family who housed Haydn. Hungarian Prince, Paul Anton, hired him originally. Haydn continued to compose in the family’s service for the rest of his life.
Mannheim School
known for technique and discipline. Dynamic range. Stamitz wrote symphonies for it in four movements, which inspired Haydn’s four-movement symphonies
Sturm und drang
storm and stress. Haydn and his symphonies. characterized by minor key, lots of dynamics, agitation, accents, abrupt changes, modulations, chromaticism
rondo form
musical form. first or main section recurs, usually in tonic, between subsidiary sections or episodes.
“sentimental style” suprising turns of harmony, chromaticism, nervous rhythms. Free, speech-like melody. originated in italy, evident in late concerti of Vivaldi, an associated with fantasies of CPE Bach
Italian overture
“refrain” in a fast movement of a concerto, the recurring thematic material played at the beginning by the fully orchestra and repeated, usually in varied form, throughout the movement and at the end.
four movements. from “sinfonia” 1. sonata form, fast 2. sonata form, slow, no development 3. minute/trio (scherzo) 4. sonata rondo, fastest
string quartet
ensemble: two violins, viola, cello. Four movements. Haydn: “The Joke”
opera buffa
comic opera. 18th century.
opera seria
“serious opera” 18th century genre of Italian opera. serious subject but normally with a happy ending, usually without comic characters and scenes.