What is music concrete?
developed after WWII
record sound on tape (traffic, talking, etc) and manipulate it
focuses on the abstract proprieties of sound, not what they are.
Who invented music concrete?
Pierre Schaefer
What was Poeme Electronique written for?
to accompany an exhibit by architect Le Corbusier at the 1958 World’s fair.
colored lights accompany the music played on 425 speakers “multimedia”
WHo composed Poeme electronique?
Edgard Varese
What is chance music?
Certain elements are not specified my the composer and are left up to chance.
What are sound masses and who created this idea?
-sound masses move through musical space and interact with each other.
-invented by Edgard Varese
What is the Music of changes and who wrote them?
John Cage
in the book of changes “Ching” toss a coin six times to determine answer from a list of 64 possible outcomes
cage devised charts to determine musical elements through coin toses
Chance compositions
chance used as a compositional method
Who was Gyorgy Ligeti and what musical technique was he responsible for?
hungarian composer
believed music is constantly in motion yet also static.
came up with Sound complexes
What are sound complexes?
pitches, chords or both that slowly change with time, blocks of sound
Who composed Lux aetrena?
Gyorgy Ligeti
What was Lux aeterna composed of?
16 solo singers and chorus
What movie was Lux aeterna made famous by?
2001 A space odyssey
Where was the text taken from for Lux aeterna?
A requiem mass
What was minimalism?
emerged in music in the 1960s
use of very simple melodies and harmony repeated many times
focuses in on process
Who is Steve Reich?
a philosopher turned composer
considered the father of minimalism
Who composed Music for 18 Musicians?
Steve Reich
What was the instrumentation for Music for 18 Musicians?
4 voices singing nonsense syllables
2 clarinets
Characteristics of Music for 18 musicians
Vibraphone cues changes in melodies and harmonies
12 connected sections with intro and conclusion
What happens in the introduction for music for 18 musicians?
the pulse and harmonies are established
What happens in section one of Music for 18 musicians?
melodic fragments are assembled into theme and then disassembled
Who was John Adams?
Leading american composer today
first works were minimalist
later works electronic and influenced by many different musical styles and genres
John Adams most famous operas?
Nixon in China and Doctor Atomic