prepared piano
an invention ofjohn cage in which various objects-such as pennies, bolts, screws, or pieces of wood, rubber plastic, or slit bamboo- are inserted between the strings of a piano, resulting in complex percussive sounds when the piano is played from the keyboard.
12 bar blues form
standard formula for the blues iwth a harmonic progression in which the first four meaure phrase in on the tonic, the second phrase begins on the subdominant and ends on the tonic, and to the third phrase starts on the dominant and returns to the tonic.
call and response
alternation of short phrases between a elader and a gropu; used especially for music int he African-American tradition.
scat singing
technique in jazz in which the performer sings nonsense syllables to an improvised or composed melody.
blue notes
the slight drops or slides inp itch ont eh third, fifth, or seventh degree of major scale, common in blues and jazz.
african american vocal genre that is based on a simplre repetitive formula and characterized by distinctive style of performance.
New Objectivity
term coined int he 1920s to describe a kind of new realism in music, in reaction to the emotional intensity of the late romantics and the expressionism of schoenberg and berg.they opposed complexity and promoted the use of familiar elements, borrowing from popular music and jazz from Classical and Baroque procedures. aka New Realism. popularized by Krenek. Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith. p
New orleans jazz
leading style of jazz just after world war 1 which centers on group variation of a given tune, either improvised or in the style of improvisation. A perfect example of this is King oliever’s west end blues, blues piece performed by Louis and his hot 5.
a new tune composed over a harmonic progression borrowed from a particular song-like the chorus of gershwin’s I got rhythm.
music for use as distinguished which was created for young and amteur performers music that was high in quality, modern in style and challenging yet rewarding to perform. Hindemith wrote music like this such as Mthis der Maler
term for music since the early 1900s that establishes a single pitch as a tonal center, but does not follow the traditional rules of tonality.
trend in music from the 1910s to the 1950s in which composers revived imitated and evoked the styles genres and forms of pre romantic music, especially those of the eighteenth century.
the simultaneous use of two or more keys, each in a different layer of music. done in charles ives music.
tin pan alley
jocular name for a district in New York where numerous publishers specializing in popular songs were located from the 1880s through the 1950s.
vernacular music
general term encompasing popular music, folk muic, jazz and other traditions outside classical music.
rhythm section
in a jazz ensemble the group of instruments that keeps the beat and fills in the background. instruments: drums, piano, and banjo
chance music
approach to composing music pioneered by john cage, in which some fo the decisions normally made by the composer are instead determine through RANDOM procedures, such as tossing coins.
hara says that certain elemnts of the COMOSITION is determined by chance as found MUSIC OF CHANGES, CAGE Chance differs from Indeterminacy but shares with it the result tha tth esouns int he music do not convey an intentinon and are therefore to be experienced only as pure sound.
an approach to composition, pioneered by john cage, in which the composer leaves certain aspects of the music unspecifiedl.hara says that certain elements of the PERFORMANCE are left undecided, as in projection 1-feldman and 433-cage.practied by mortonfeldman in his cello piece called projection 1. The main indetermined thing is the pitches played.
socialist realism
a doctrine of the soviet union begun in the 1930s in which all the arts were required to use a realistic approach that portrayed socialism in a positive light. In music this meant use of simple accessible language, centered on melody, and patriotic subject matter. practiced by Prokofiev’s Alexander Nevsky celebrating socialism, progess, and the people by using techniques that were directly accesible to the masses.
nondiegetic music
background music that conveys the viewer a mood or other aspects of a scene or character.
modes of limited transpositions
collections of notes like whole tones and octatonic scales, that do not change when transposed by certain intervals like in the octatonic scale that can be transposed a minor third, tritone or major sixth yielding the same set of notes.
rhythm changes
the chorus’s harmonic progression of I g ot rhtyhm that was adapted for so many new jazz tunes that it became known as such.
tune is presented at the beginning over a particular progression that is called such that repeats several times while arious soloists play over it. it can feature different instruments and some new musical ideas, almost like a theme-and-variation form
big band jazz
type of music that involves a jazz ensemble most popular between world wars, featuring: brass(3 trumpets,2 trombones), reeds(clarinets,saxophones),rhythm section(piano, drums and guitar) with double bass and playing prepared arrangements that included rhythmic unsions and coordinated dialogue between sections and soloists Sometimes it included vocalists. Bandleaders include: Armstrong, fletcher henderson, duke Ellington, and count basie, Paul Whitemana nd benny goodman.
parlando rubato
description of a melody in which it is speechlike and in free tempo. one use found in Bartoks, Music for Strings, Percussion an d Celesta.
The Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians
considered contemporary music elitist and they encouraged tonal music with wide appeal, like mass songs with group unisons. This prompted some of the works of prokofiev and shostakovich.
tin pan alley song form
verse plus thirty 2 bar chorus of AABA’ used in I got rhythm, /george gershwin.
palindrome(arch form)
when the the second half of something is an exact retrograde of the first. This can be found in Seeger’s string quarrtet 1931, fourth movement.
nonretrogradable rhythms
refers to rhythms that are the same backwards and forwards which was was Olivier Messaien trademark found in Quatuor pour la fin du temps used in the cello in to represent eternity.
harmonic fluctuation
hindemiths method in which he has fiarly consonant chords progress toward combinations of greater tension and dissoance which are resolved suddenly or moderately to consonance again. This is heard in Mathis, 2nd movement, represent the entombment of the christ with 5ths, then fourths & seconds, to fifths again,
les six.
a young group of composers absorbed the strong influence of necoclassicism but sough to escape the old political dichotomies and were parallel to the mighty five in Russia. They admired Satie and wer praised by Jean Cocteau. 1.Arthur honegger 2. Darius Mlahud 3. Francis Poulenc 4. Germaine Tailleferre 5. Georges Auric 6. Louis durey.
this included the composers who wrote american music between world wars that focused on developing new musical resources which included avant garde/new techniques(composition & performance) This included: Henry Cowell, Edgar Varese, and Ruth Seeger.
these were the composers who used traiditional medio, blended a traditional ramework with innovation, and could be deemed as modernists. As such they would be seen as incorporating national styles and sounds into European genres. this includes the likes of Aaron Copland and William Grant Still, virgil Thomson, George Gershwin.
louis armstrong
he was an African American trumpeter/ singer that performed new orleans jazz such as king ovier’s west end jazz. he emphasized solo improvisation which replased ensemble improvisation(one way this differs from big band jazz). Who also characteristically does scat singing.
Nadia boulangerw
Paris-born renowned pedagogue thatwas an advocate of Faure and Stravinsky. She taught: Coplan, virgil Thomson, Roy Harris, walter piston, Ross lee Finney, and Elliot carter
bertold brecht
a playwright that worte works that were politically engaging. Weill collaborated with him in his opera, The rise and fall of the city of mahagonny, and the three penny opera that was based on John Gay’s beggar opera. Musically it included: ballad text, european dance, adn american jazz.
martha graham
coplan saw her dance to his piano variations and wanted to collaborate when Elzabeth Coolidge commisoned 3 ballet scoresshe was the woman who cmmissioned Appalachian Spring who providing the plot of a young couple at a PA frontier having a wedding, where the work celebrates Spring and the wedding
king oliver
cornettist and trumpetist that moved to Chi town and invited louis once he had got on his feet where he called his band the King Oliver’s creole Jazz and. He worked under okeh and gennet records,. Works: West End blues which exemplifies solo improvisation rather than ensemble improv.
ernst krenek
german composer who followed New Objectivity ideals in Jonny spielt auf it shows the interaction between teh European and the African american jazz traditions and where they they differed. unfortunately, the nazi regime shot it down even though this was to be Krenek’s catapult of a career.
henry cowell
he was composer who had little european training and was known as a modernist calirfornian composer. style: tone clusters found in “Tides” of Manuaan. style: signature thing is the tone clustes. He always explored new resources but resorted to more folky American Irish or Asian elemnts at the end of hs career. He promoted world music and ehtnomusicology. Hew would publish the works of Ives and schoenberg in his periodical called New Music. Work: The bansheet-experimental use of piano with 4 methods.
edgar varese
french born who learned from schola cantorum/conservatoire who started in paris/berlin and then went to nY. INFLUENCED BY : DEBUSSY, SCHOENBERG, STRAVINSKY. STYLE: SOUND MASS CONCEPT DEMONSRATED IN HYPERPRISM. he heard an aural ballet and each set of sound had it’s ownombination of instruments and had no distinct melody. Late career characerized by electronic music.
darius milhaud
one of les ix who wrote alot: piano, chamber, suites, sonatas, symphonies, film music, ballets songs, cnatatas, operas and music for children.wrote souvenirs of brasil after 2 year stay marked by syncopated rhtyhms and diatonic melodies of Brazilian polytonality, polyrhythm,(in la creation du monde) jazz, and fugues and jazz idioms and instrumentaiton in
bessie smith
empress of blues who did not go by her music and she was the most successful and prominent african american musician of her dcade, and she wrote her piece in a 12 bar blues form where the last word of each stanza gave new info in honor of those in the Mississippi flood.
sergey prokofiev
Left russia and toured N. america and western europe as pianist and making opera: Chic, the 3 oranges and ballet for 2 decades. When returning, he was subject to Soviet command in works: lt. Kije and Romeo Juliet, Alexander Nevsky.
Style: homphony, folklike, modal, diatonic melodies, Russian, Stage 2 of musical style: absolute music mared by juxtaposition, lyricism, and rhtyhms.
silvestre revueltas
latin american who studied in Mexico/Amer. job: under chavez. style: modernist/popular/mexican folk influenced by: Rite of spring, stravinksy. style: juxtaposition, used irregular meters for ostinatos***
paul hindemith
went to Berlin som, yale, and zurich and was a multiinstrumentalist. stages of comp: romantic, expressionist, and then finally new objectivity: mathis der maler. style: harmonic fluctuation and gebrauchmusik with high quality, modern style, and rewarding performance
dmitri shostakovich
spent all o fhis life in soviet system and favored modernist music more tahn proletarian. Lady Macbeth was shostakovich’s opera that was oposed by Stalin though accepted by all else. He called it grotesque, portrayal of iolence and sex. His musical response to just criticism was the 5th symphony where seemed to be a poke of satire, fitting into norms through juxtaposed keys without just preparation or leading into. musical philosophy: it was his outlet to tell the truth. works: film scores, symphonies, operas.
george gershwin
began career as a composer of popular songs and boradway shows and while also being well performed in classical genres. He always had the best in boh worlds when learning about chopin liszt and debussy in classical piano and taking lessons in harmony counterpoint, form, and orhcestration with Cowell but also realizing its potentiona in art music. His combo is seen Rhapsody in blue, piano concerto, and porgy and bess. style: as found in rhrapsody, he incroporates jazz/blues/popular music/ and as found in piano concerto, blues, jazz, and latin dance rhythms, and as found in porgy, spiritual influence. Died of brain tumor
Duke Ellington
leading jazz composer who worked in the cotton club which acted as his musical laboratory. He preferred arrangements over imrpovisation and it was his timbres and voicing in his arrangements that gave him acclaim. Works: cotton tial, don’t get around much anaymor. style: call and response, expoitation of soloists talets. philosophy: jazz was music, not lower (nutcracker suite)
Aaron Copland
raised in brooklyn. jewish. homosexual leftist. had concerts of ives chavez and virgil thomson. due to depression went for wide appeal. style: Modernit technique to counterpoint, dissoance, and juxtapositio combined with simple textures, and diatonic melodies, and harmonies. would use foreign traditional songs to suggest country’s setting. works: Appalachian springs, billy the kid, second hurricane, rodeo. styl continued: open spacing, empty octaves, and fifths, and diatonic dissonacnes creates a distinctive sound that has been frequently imtated. lively/flexible rhythms, and using spacing/instruments for cool colors.
Ruth Crawford Seeger
the first woman to win guggenheim fellowship was cativ in Chi, and NY where she studied under Charles, her future husband. Styles ventured: serialism, then folk songs, and evnetually stood out for marking her American traditional music and for being one of the very few women int eh ultramodernist group. Her best known work is this string quartet. that is in palindrome/arch form in certain movements with reversing of dyanmics of. She combines tradition with ultramodernist.
William Grant Still
african emrican composer who came from hadwick, varese thandy’sdance band. Nickname:dean of afroamerican composers. wrote: 150 comps: operas ballets, symphonies, chamber works, choral pieces, and solo vocla works. style: call and response, 12 bar blues, spiritual, syncopation, jazz harmonies, dialogue between groups, and instrumental timbres.
Benjamen Britten
english homosexual composer that focused on communication. partner: peter pears hestudied at Royal college of music. themes: pacifism. works: film scores, peter grimes opera, style: potlytonality, and modernistic with symplicty.
Olivier Messiaen
devout catholic. french composer who studied organ/comp at paris conservatoir. students: pierre bouez, stockhausen, leeuw. work: quatuor pour la fin du temps(violin, calrin, cello, and piano) theme: music as contemplation. style: used bird calls, employed limited modes of transposition(wt, adn oct), and went for duration with nonretrogradable and additive rhythm.
Gian Carlo Menotti
person who was born in cadegliano, italy. He enters the Milan conservatory/curtis insitute in us(samuel barber-colleague/partner). works: amelia goes to the ball, old maid and th ethief, the meidum, the consul, the ahmal and the night visitors, who started the Spoleto festival in charleston which is analogue to a similar festival in Italy. He moved to US from italy after studying at the milan conservatory
John cage
studied with: cowell/schoenberg. wrote for cpercussion. experimentalist. style/technique: prepared piano, used square root form, if 15 in each, than 15 in ful. friends of morton feldman. used chance in his music and indeterminacy in his music.
samuel barber
stuck with tonal romanticism works with 12 tone rows full of oen fifths and augmented unisons, text accentuation, and felbexible syncopated line (monk and his cat)works: adagio for strings, monk and his cat form hermit songs.
morton feldman
influenced by: jackson pollock(dripping artist), Mark Rothko, and Philip Guston. philosphY: use instinct style: graphic notation, indetermincacy, quiet, atonal,pointillistic, and in embodiment of abstract painters