has an unmistakable timbre with brilliant overtones. Most common brass instrument
has a thin piercing sound. Standard component of the New Orleans jazz style..achieved greater renown during the swing era of the 1930’s.
low pitched brass instrument. Allows player to glide from one note to another
very low pitched. often used as a bass instrument because of its powerful volume. Supports the harmony and plays a basic rhythmic foundation
part of the rhythm section.. primarily harmony. Provide harmony, bass, and percussion
part of the rhythm section
Pulse. Rhythm moving at a given steady rate, like your heartbeat.
the speed of a piece of music. The rate at which the beat or pulse moves.
3 basic types of jazz tempos
Ballad tempo= slow tempo

Medium tempo= most popular in jazz, and goes at a medium speed…

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Up tempo= fast tempo.

the organization of recurring pulses/beats into patterns.

-most common meter in music consists of 4 beats.

Measure or Bar
a rhythmic unit lasting from one downbeat to the next.

Name a song that uses it:

unaccompanied musical passage played by a soloist.

-this is used in the song: Armstrong- West End Blues.

Foundation Layers definition:

What instruments involved:

continuous, unchanging patterns whose very repetition provides a framework for a musical piece

The bass plays a steady stream of evenly spaced notes. High above it, the drummer reinforces this pattern on the ride cymbal

Collective Improvisation
method of improvisation found in New Orleans jazz in which several instruments in the front line improvise simultaneously in a dense, polyphonic texture.
Call and Response

Where dose this originate?

A statement made by one musician is then answered by another, like in West End Blues.

African American slaves working in the fields would use it as a sort of communication between each other. Used in Miles Davis’s “So What”

Trading Fours

main instrument featured:

where each musician trades 4 measures( can be more or less) with the drummer.


the first degree of the scale, or the chord build on the first scale degree. Most basic form, home base.
Major scale:
the most common scale in Western music. The pattern of whole and half steps WWHWWWH
Is the simultaneous sending of 2 pitches. Like paints, hey can be combined to create different colors.
Combination of 3 or more notes played simultaneously.
Harmonic Progression
Is the movement from chord to chord, this conveys a feeling of propulsion.
A sound that is considered to be unstable. The quality of an unstable harmony that resolves to another chord.

How do dissonance and connance relate to musical movement?

A chord that is at rest, or stable. The quality of harmony that’stable and doesn’t need to resolve to another chord.

Gives a feel of moving the music forward.

Complete music thought. much like a sentence in speech.
Half cadence

Full cadence

Think about phrase…

Half Cadence- a complete phrase that sounds unresolved

Full Cadence- a complete phrase that ends with a sense of resolution. Much like the period at the end of a sentence

What two elements combine to create song form…
Chorus and verses.
a musical/poetic form in African American culture, created 1900 and widely influential around the world. Marked by its unusual 3 line stanza. It became a musical form through its distinctive chord progression in the accompaniment to ballads. The blues is a personal window into the singer’s mind which matched the mood of the time.
Popular – minstrelsy
Attentive white performers studied their black counterparts, adopting their comedic and dance styles and accompanying themselves on the banjo. a type of song created by professional songwriters especially in the period of the 1920’s to the 1960’s
a single statement of the harmonic and rhythmic jazz. The repeated portion of a popular song, often introduced by its verse
Up beat
A note played in the middle of the beat, diving the beat.
the technique of speeding up and slowing down at the musicians desire.