What are the guidelines for blues poetry?

-12 bar for

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-3 phrases sung

– 1st phrase repeated twice and third phrase.

-Called AAB form

Where and why was Jazz created?
It was created out of the social conditions that were present in Southern US. It was a combination of african oral traditions and western traditional music

What is an improvised solo?

The highest form of individual expression where the band drops out and the soloist improvises. they must be well trained and have a good ear1
What is a “lay out?”
When the member of a band drop out or play a supportive roll to a improvising soloist.
What are the main instruments  used in jazz bands?
Piano, Upright bass, Drum set, Sop. Sax, alto sax, tenor sax, and baritone sax, trombone flute, clarinet, trumpet cornet, flugal horn 
What is the form of jazz music?
head- 1st solo- 2nd solo- head
What is a riff?
A short melodic phrase  or melody. usually repeated throughout the peice
What are the functions of African Music?

-To celebrate the loss of a first tooth

-To celebrate passage into adulthood

-To shame bed wetters and theives

-To tell historical events

-To disimeate imformation

What is an African Work song?

Songs sung while

-building boats

-cooking dinner


-cleaning the home

What is a griot?

Highly skilled performers, singers and parade leaders. 

-they are also in charge of maintaning oral history of the community

What is a ring shout?
It is a type of song and dance where people get in a circle in run counter clockwise in ever increasing speed until they reach a state of hysteria. Music and dance used to be considered one thing.
What is the pentatonic scale?
5 note scale. do re mi fa so la- commonly used in african folk music
What is call and response?
when the lead singer issues a call and the participants provide the response
What is improvisation most known in?
vocal performances
What are the four major types of African instruments?

Drums with vibrating membranes

Drums without vibrating membranes

Stringed instruments

Wind intruments

What are the main characteristics of African Music?

Heavy emphasis on complex rhythm

melodies relying on the pentatonic scale

Importance of improvisation

close relationship btw music and speech

What is minstrelsy or minstrel shows?

Short skits and acts to entertain an audience. 
What is a cakewalk?
usually 2 slaves who perform high kicks together to immitate the white folk. the winners won a cake.
What are Ethiopean songs?
A genre of songs created by the cakewalk competition. they are folk songs like o suzzanna 
Who is Stephen Foster?
a composer of Ethopian songs who wrong oh susanna and old folks at home
What is vaudeville?
a touring shot with skits and performances the generally depicted slave life
What are the Blues?
a form of jazz that people used to express their emotions and moods. It is usually sad or soulful. Many of the styles are still used
What are the three elements that determine a blues piece?

-12 bar form 

– blues scale

-blues poetic formula

What is the Diatonic scale?
the notes from a specific scale or key and the harmony derived from those notes. This is the I IV and V chords
What is the Blues scale and blues notes?
A six note scale. with certain scale degrees raised and lowered. the lowered notes are the blues notes. 
What are the characteristics of the Country Blues?

They are also called the rural blues

solo male vocalist

guitar self accompaniment

loosely fit to 12 bar scheme. 

became important when men lost their jobs after reconstruction and moves alot and did not have work

Who is W.C Handy?

“Father of the Blues” 

He wrote songs and made the first blues on written sheet music in 1910 before the classic blues era. wrote “memphis blues” and “St.Louis Blues”

What is the Mississippi Delta?
The most fertile area of development for the country blues. sliding guitar and haunting vocals. 
Who was Charley Patton?
the first delta bluesman to achieve fame. began in chicago with paramount records in 1929. He was a talented guitarist .
Who was Son House?
He was a preacher by 15 and then started guitar at 25. strong influence on Muddy Water and Robert Johnson Went into retirement in 1934 when his friend charley patton died but came in 1964 as a famous delta blues artist. 
Who is Robert Johnson?
He is the most famous and legendary Delta blues artist.  Contemporary rock artists copy him. He was so good that people said he sold his soul to the devil to become a good guitarist. 
Who is Leadbelly?
Huddie Ledbetter. he performed with Blind Lemon Jefferson. split- had a troublesome life. arrested twice for murder- was released with the help of John Lomax. moved to new york. Two years after he died a group called The Weavers became famous off his song goodnight irene.  
Who is John Lomax?
Important musicologist who helped leadbelly get out of jail. 
What is a jug band?
String instrument bands that play music and stomp
What is a pianola?
A piano player- a piano tht plays itself
Who is Blind Lemon Jefferson?
Played with leadbelly but split. headed to delta and gained fame and moved to chicago from there. Made some of the first blues recording and died in a snowstorm

What is the Missouri School?


A group of men ragtime artists who got together and put on shows and competed in competitions


Ragtime form?


took on more european theme. written down. Instrumental music only

Who is Scott Joplin?
Ragtime composer. He was talented enough to leave home as teenager. He wrote opera’s as well as rag time. His opera Treemonisha he published himself and after is failed he went into mental and financial decline. He died later of dementia
What Was Scott Joplin’s warning to ragtime players?
Do not play this piece fast. It is never right to play ragtime fast. 
What is Treemonisha?
Scott Joplin’s major opera. He published it with his money. but when it failed he went into financial and mental decline and died of dementia. Later in 1976 he was given the Pulitzer prize and his opera was performed where he originally planned it
What is Congo square?
Starting in 1817 slaves were permited to sing and dance in Congo square. It became a touring attraction.
What are the two most important musical events in New orleans?
Funerals and Brass bands
Describe New orleans Brass bands
After the civil war the brass instruments used by the confederate army filled pawn shops in the south. bands formed and were used in celebrations all the time. They were proud and collected dues and had a place to belong
What is a dirge?
A slow hymn used in funerals. it has a marching beat and is used when carrying the body to the burial plot
What is a second line?
In a New Orleans funeral- the followers of the band playing the dirge. They follow them to their grave drinking and celebrating the life of the diseased.
What does the ethnic mix in New orleans consist of?

Whites of European discent

Creoles of color (mixed)

African Americans

What are Creoles of color?
black creoles. considered the same social level as whites. many were racist against blacks. they spoke french.;
Describe Creoles music style
Classically trained in scales and arpeggios and music reading. it was a light and pure style of playing and could be used in upper class parties and symphonies. etc
Characteristics of African American Jazz in New Orleans
Could not read music. Music was hotter or more upbeat and extremely loud. They were proud of their abilities and how they perserved african american culture. and playing loud.;
What is Legislative code No. 111?
A law saying that anyone with even the slightest bit of black heritage was considered black. It devasted the Creoles who were now kept with blacks that they were racist against. Eventually the next generation learned how to live together and learn from each other and in a sense led to the birth of jazz
What is Storyville?
A place where prostitution was legalized and musicians worked in brothels. the piano players were called profesors.;
What is the Funky Butt hall?
It was the hall in Storyville where Buddy Bolden’s band played
What is the birthdate of Jazz?
What are the four main styles of jazz?


– Blues

– Spirituals

– European songs and classical music

Who is Buddy Bolden?
He was a famous musician who is known only by word and there are no records of him. but he was the loudest trumpet player. people say you could hear him from miles away

Who is Joe “King” Oliver?


The mentor of Louis Armstrong. Moved and got a gig in chicago and had Lous join him. 
Jelly Roll Morton
Father of the jazz piano. claims to have invented jazz. worked at a brothel but got kicked out when his parents found out
Who is Sidney Bechet?

child prodegy on clarinet.  got into trouble alot. toured europe. became the first important jazz soprano


What is a stride piano?


fast energectic and technically challenging.

left hand feature

swing rythm.

blues element. 

What is Boogie Woogie?

It is also called Rolling bass

left hand repeats patterns and the right hand improvs.  more rhythmic less structured

What is the Original Dixie Jass Band?
all whites. went to chicago to gain fame. sang livery stable blues. it was the first jazz recording. 
What is the Black Belt?
A place where the new immigrants that moved to chicago stayed. night life flourished and it was a great place to work as a jazz musician. 
What is a Black and Tan?
a mixer for black and white people to mingle and drink and dance
King Oliver’s Creole Jazz band?
made some of the first most important jazz recording.;
Who is Bix Beiderbecke?
One of the most important white jazz players. the spiritual leader of the white chicago scene. got sent to school by parents. dropped out and entered the music world. in ;CHICAGO
Frank “Tram” Trumbauer
Bix’s saxaphonest. he took care of bix. and was his musical soulmate. he place the C-melody sax
Mammie Smith
Helped marketers see the demand for anfrican american entertainment and consumers. amazing jazz singer who sang “crazy Blues”
What cause the demise of the chicago jazz scene?
New York was becoming the center of everything and had jobs to offer to people. 
What is the Valentines Day Massacre?
gang wars that solidified the support of public to crack down on crime.
What was the final blow to Chicago jazz?
Repealing the 18th amendment
Who sang “crazy blues?”
Mammie Smith- sold 1 million copies. 
Ma Rainey?
mother of blues
Who performed Someday My Prince Will Come?
Miles Davis Sextet
Who performed Crossroad blues?
Robert Johnson
Who performed Maple Leaf Rag?
Scott Joplin
Who performed Tiger Rag?
Art Tatum-
Who performed Livery Stable Blues
 Original Dixieland Jass Band
Who performed The Dippermouth Blues?
King Oliver Creole Jazz band
whos it Earl Fatha Hines?
Louis Armstrongs pianist and competition for most famous jazz composer of his time