Creoles of Color
A person of mixed Black and European ancestry who speaks a creolized language, especially one based on French or Spanish. (e.g., Jelly Roll Morton)
a form characterized by the use of a 12-bar chorus and an AAB lyrical verse that can be incorporated into jazz, rock, and other styles. The blues is also a separate style in and of itself that comes in many different forms
a notated and fully composed piano style that was popular during the 1890s and early 20th century

Ragged time = syncopated versions of popular songs
Piano replicates parts for a 6-7 piece brass band
Pianists expected to improvise

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Ragtime does not “swing:


a traveling show that was popular during the 19th entury featuring songs, skits, and dancing that usually portrayed African Americans in a derogatory fashion
The Great Migration
brought two million Southern black Americans north to cities like Chicago and New York by 1930
The Harlem Renaissance
an increased awareness and promoting of African American artistic culture in Harlem in the 1920s that included theatre, literature, art, poetry, and music
Rent Parties
parties that charged an admission price that helped pay the next month’s rent; popular in Harlem in the 1920s
Chicago Style Jazz
a style of jazz that emerged from white bands in Chicago in the 1920s

Addition of saxophone
Guitar replaces banjo
Double bass replaces tube
More complex music

brass instruments
wind instruments played with a cup-shaped mouthpiece. This category includes the trumpet, cornet, trombone, and tuba.
John Coltrane
Bridges Hard Bop to Free Form. Leading saxophonist. Joined Miles in 1955. Sacred music.
Free Form Jazz
No structure or form; chords not prescribed. Rhythms not always 4/4; High communication needed
Jelly Roll Morton
Pianist, composer, band leader. ODJB
First famous jazz composer
Scott Joplin
A Prominent ragtime performers
Paul Whiteman
-“King of Jazz”
-mixed jazz into dance music
-28 #1 records
Fletcher Henderson
1897-1952 – Pianist
Duke Ellignton
composer, band leader and pianist
2000+ compositions.
“Master of the three minute form”
took the idiom of jazz into the format of extended works
often wrote more than one versoin to a song
“jungle” pieces at the cotton club
dance pieces
cotton club was his important engagement
Discovered the “Golden section”
James P. Johnson
1894-1955 – Pianist
-father of stride piano (smoother, more modern, improvisation, than ragtime)

Bessie Smith’s favorite accompanist

cotton club
where ellingtons early band played for floor shows
High end club in harlem
Minstrel-type entertainment
“Jungle Music” – Bubber Miley’s trumpet growl
Jazz evolved during the _____ century.
The beginnings of jazz occurred:
ca. 1900
What technology brought musical styles and musicians to the attention of vast numbers of listeners and other musicians?
What is the title of the first jazz recording? Where was it?
Original Dixieland Jazz Band (1917), NYC
Who was the first to break the race barrier in jazz? In what year and under what circumstances did it occur?
In 1936, Benny Goodman breaks the racial barrier by hiring Lionel Hampton, Teddy Wilson and Charlie Christian to play a Carnegie Hall concert.
What constitutional action profoundly changed the lives of jazz musicians on the road?
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment.
Who was the first “giant” of jazz (name, dates, style, instrument and contributions).
Louis Armstrong
NYC – Plays 1st trumpet w/ Fletcher Henderson



Trumpet and Vocal

virtuoso soloist art form

Who was the second “giant” of jazz (name, dates, style, instrument and contributions).
Duke Ellington


Swing Era and beyond

Band Leader and Pianist

first great composer of jazz music

Who was the third “giant” of jazz (name, dates, style, instrument and contributions).
Charlie Parker



Alto Sax and Composer

modernized jazz soloing with a newer, “hipper” rhythmic style
expanded harmonic vocabulary
elevated technical standards

What time period constitutes the Dixieland jazz era?
ca. 1900-late 1920s
Who are the major musicians of the Dixieland era (4)?
Louis Armstrong

“Jelly Roll” Morton

Sidney Bechet

Bix Beiderbecke

What are the major characteristics of Dixieland jazz?
blues, rags and marches
collective improvisation
soloist established as an artist
stride piano style established
What time period constitutes the Swing Era?
Who are the major musicians of the Swing Era (9)?
Duke Ellington

Count Basie

Fletcher Henderson

Jimmy Lunceford

Glenn Miller

Benny Goodman

Tommy Dorsey

Artie Shaw

Claude Thornhill

(and many others)

What are the major characteristics of the Swing Era?
Big bands are the “kings of swing”
much competition and variety
only time a form of jazz is the popular music of the USA
“American Popular Song” forms (AABA/32 bar variations)
composers and arrangers important
What period constitutes the Be-bop era?
Who are the major musicians of the Be-bop era (5)?
Charlie Parker

Dizzy Gillespie

Thelonius Monk

Bud Powell

Art Tatum

What are the major characteristics of the Be-bop era?
Redefining of soloist art forms
More modern “hip”
higher technical standards
solos based on chord progressions
smaller groups than the swing era
AABA, blues forms (and others)
not popular music
Latin influence
Joe “King” Oliver
1885-1938 – Trumpet
Creole jazz band

New Orleans

Pioneered use of mutes
2nd trumpet = Louis Armstrong

Benny Goodman
1909-1986 – Clarinet
Art Tatum
severly limited vision
amazing technique and velocity at piano
songs: Willow Weep for Me, Tiger Rag
Charlie Parker
nicknamed yardbird
possibly the most important musical figures in jazz history
played and lots of notes. densley packed solos
songs: Shaw Nuff(with Dizzy), Embraceable You (two alternate takes)
a person descended from of culturally related to the original French settlers of the southern United States, especially Louisiana
an anticipation of the beat, often accented; function of rhythm
Congo Square
A place where slaves were permitted to dance
Now called Louis Armstrong park
New Orleans City Council 1817 designated Congo square as the official site for slave dances
Other parts of the country did not permit this and outlawed any African elements in the music of slaves. New Orleans Latin-Catholic influence was tolerant
Ragtime Form
Piano Genre
Benny Goodman
As a soloist, he defined jazz clarinet as no other, before or since.
Established standards of technical perfection unheard of in that era.
Popularized Swing Style
Had First Racially Mixed band
instrumentation of swing group
5 saxophones, 3-4 trumpets, 3-4 trombones, piano, bass, guitar, and drums.
Castle House Rag
ragtime turned mainstream
Bessie Smith
“Empress of the Blues”
race records
Blues records (blacks)
rural blues
-country/hillbilly music
-spread by radio
-discoverd by guys looking for Blues artists in the south
First black jazz recording
Joe Oliver’s Creole Band 1923
Why Jazz in New Orleans?
-cultural environment
-French and Spanish influence (interracial marriage)
-slaves, free blacks, refugees, Caribbean, Italian refugees
-PORT CITY ($ tourism, entertainment)
Chicago Style Jazz
-white musician majority
-more integration
-Bix Beiderbecke (trumpet)
European Influence on Jazz
Harmony – from polka/marches
Symmetrical form
Instrumentation – from marching bands
African Influence on Jazz
Emphasis on rhythm (syncopation/polyrythm)
Use of vocal inflection
Call and response
Definition: 2nd Line
Refers to mourners who follow marching band in N.O. funeral
Play sad, then happy hymns
Characteristics: The Blues
Simultaneous expression of joy/grief
Born out of repression of slavery/hate
Religious overtones
Characteristics: Country Blues
Earliest form of blues, from rural south
Singer and guitar
Loose and improvisatory
Definition: Blue Note
Refers to a note that is changed (flatted) and outside the normal scale
Characteristics: Stride Piano
Played popular music
More improvisation than rag
Faster, more aggressive style
Places: Storyville
Red light district in N.O.
Clubs hire jazz bands/pianists
Musicians play in streets
Instrumentation: Cornet/Trumpet
Loudest instrument
Plays melody
Instrumentation: Clarinet
Plays counter melody/harmony
Provides momentum
Instrumentation: Trombone
Dictates chord changes
Louis Armstrong: New Orleans and Chicago
N.O. – born there, takes lessons from Joe “king” Oliver
Later leads Oliver’s band when Oliver moves to CHI
CHI – Plays 2nd trumpet for Oliver, then leaves CHI
Returns to record Hot Fives/Hot Sevens
WC Handey
father of blues

not a blues player, educated

champion of blues players, opened a talent agency wrote contracts for blacks so they didnt get ripped off

Why did the big band swing era end?
because war, war tax, recording bann

musicians thought it was about time- sick of playing dance music

Savoy Ballroom
Ballroom in Harlem where Chick Webb was a regular performer