group improv
small groups (5-7
Tuba, snare, bass, trumpet, clarinet, Trombone.
No written music
Significant Dixieland players
Sydney Bichet
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
Louie Armstrong
Buddy Bolden
Joe Oliver
Louis Armstrong
-Trumpet player
-The first person to become really virtuostic at Jazz. Puts the impetus on solo improv instead of group improv
-Lyrical solos
-also important as a singer, brings scat to Jazz
Big Band Swing
-2 sections, winds and rhythm
-wind: sax, trumpet, trombone (front)
-rhythm: piano, drumset, bass guitar, tuba, regular guitar (back)
-more written arrangements, less improv, more musicians
Different rhythmic feel-not played straight on the beat
Significant Big Band Musicians
Count Basie
Glenn Miller
Benny Goodman
Duke Ellington
Louie Prima
Kenny Dorsey
Count Basie
-Kansas City Swing Style
-lots of improv
Glenn Miller
-Sweet Band Music
-very orchestrated/choreographed, singing, costuming, etc.
-Chattanooga Choo Choo
Benny Goodman
-Toured US, expanded people’s awareness of Jazz
-racially integrated his band
Duke Ellington
-great pianist
-Huge innovator
-composed over 3,000 pieces of music
-created new sounds with compositions
-considered precursor to bebop, free jazz
split in Jazz
-Regulated to “art music,” no longer popular
-Rock’n’Roll and Rhythm and Blues become America’s pop music.
-Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie release Koko: Bebop
-Smaller instrumentation
-Combo groups of 3-5
-Bass, piano, trumpet, sax, percussion
(always have to have either bass or drum)
-Different from swing and Dixieland
Faster, more virtuostic
still swings
Form: AABA (32 bars, B stands for Bridge)
Bebop written over chords of existing music
hard bop has its own chords
Hard bop and cool jazz are subcategories of bebop
Significant Bebop Musicians
Charlie Parker
Dizzy Gillespie
Charlie Parker
inovator, created the bebop form
set the bar for sax players.
Cool Jazz
a subcategory of bebop
slower, more laid-back
still have improv and solo
bebop, hard bop, cool jazz, and all small jazz combos today use this form.
Avant Garde
Late 50s-60s
Don’t follow the rules of Jazz
tonality changes, moves away from key centers
-4ths and 5ths instead of 3rds
rhythm still steady
Spiritual jazz
Significant Avant-Garde Musicians
John Coltrane
Thelonius Monk
John Coltrane
Virtuosity unrivaled, like Parker
Free Jazz
Avant-garde taken to the limit
no framework, total freedom
not just polyrythms, but no rhythm at all
no tonality
Jazz mixed with other genres
synthesizers, more drums
jazz rock, jazz acid, funky jazz, disco jazz
Miles Davis
-also important to bebop and avant-garde
Bitch’s Brew
-Jazz fused with Electronic music
-Sax, bass clarinets, synthesizers, electronic effects