1950’s Jazz: Substyles

Cool Jazz:

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–Restraint, lyricism, use of space, counterpoint, quieter dynamic range, modal
Hard bop
–> funky/soul jazz

1960’s (Pianists)
Bill Evans
Herbie Hancock
Chick Corea
Keith Jarrett
Andy Kirk’s Band (From)
Kansas City
Avant Garde Jazz (Key Players)
Archie Shepp – Alto Sax -> Tenor
Albert Ayler – tenor sax
John Coltrane – tenor sax – Hamlet NC
Billy Kaplan – drummer
Josef Zawinal – piano – (starts weather report)
Bebop: Key Players

Charlie parker, Alto

Dizzy guilespie, Trumpet

Bud Powell, Piano

Thelonius Monk, Piano

Bebop: Principles/Ideas
Music grounded in improv. with focus on solos Important melodies “heads” compliment to improv Small groups over big bands Musical performances in jazz clubs, not large dance halls De-emphasis of commercial aspects of popular success > no dancers Rhythmic pulse is less obvious Rise in black consciousness reflected in music/titles
Benny Goodman Orchestra (About)
New York City -Best Arrangers wrote for him – fletcher Henderson, mary lou williams -broke race barrier in jazz, hired black guitarist Charlie Christian (“solo flight”)
Benny Goodman’s Quartet (members)

Benny Goodman – Clarinet

Lionel Hampden – Vibes

Teddy Willson – Piano

Gene Krupa – Drummer

Benny Moten’s Band (Life)
From Kansas City. Became the Count Basie Band.
Billy Ecstein (Life)

Vocalist Started group Featured many prominent bebop musicians:

-Jeanne Annons, Dexter Gordon (tenor sax), Charlie Parker, Sunny Stit (alto), Sarah Vaughn (vocals)

Brazilian Jazz
Elaine Elias – piano
Chicago Jazz: Austin High Band (members)

Cornet – Jimmy McParkland

Tenor – Bud Freeman

Drummer – Dave Tufts

Piano – Joe Sunderlin

Chicago Jazz: Louis Armstrong (life)

Followed KO to Chicago – Hot Five/Hot Seven Recordings

– Cornet > trumpet – Played on river boats – Moved to Chicago following King Oliver – Played with Fletcher Henderson – 3rd trumpet > improvised – Extended workable range of the trumpet – Played in Fatts Waller Ain’t Misbehaving show

Cool Jazz (Vocalists)
Joe Williams
Eddie Jefferson
Lambert, Hendricks, and Ross
Frank Sinatra
Cool Jazz: (Bands/Artists)
Miles Davis
Dave Brubeck
Stan Getz
Gerry Mulligan
Chet Baker
Modern Jazz Quartet (Art Blakey)
Cool Jazz: (Piano Stylists)
Bud Powell
George Shearing
Erroll Garner – Pittsburgh
Oscar Peterson – Montreal
Count Basie (From)
Red Bank, NJ
Duke Ellington: Key Players (Trumpet)

Cootie Williams

Rex Stewart

Bubber Miley 

Duke Ellington: Key Players: Rhythm

Basist – Jimmy Blanton

Piano – Billy Strayhorn (lyricist/composer)


Duke Ellington: Key Players: Sax

Alto Sax – Johnny Hodges

Barry Sax – Harry Carney

Tenor Sax – Ben Webster


Duke Ellington: Key Players: Trombone/Clarinet

 Clainet – Barney Bigard

Trombone – Lawrence Brown

Valve-Trombone – Juan Tizol 


Early Big Bands (Bands/Band Leaders)
Fletcher Henderson – Atlanta GA –> NYC Duke Ellington – Washington DC –> NYC
Early Jazz Bands: (Name/Location)
ODJB – New Orleans King Oliver & Creole Jazz Band – New Orleans –> Chicago (with Louis Armstrong)
European Jazz (Key Band/Player)
Quintette Du Hot Club De France- Django Reinhardt (Guitar)
Fletcher Henderson (From, Went To)
Georgia –> New York
Free Jazz (Key Players)
Cecil Taylor – Piano
Ornette Coleman – alto sax
Funk Jazz (Key Players)
Julian “Cannonball” Adderly – Alto Sax – Tampa, FL
Jimmy Smith – Jazz Organ
Kenny Burrell – Guitar
George Benson -Guitar
Hard Bop Resurgence (Key Players)
Lee Morgan – Trumpet – Philly
Freddy Hubbard – Trumpet
Wayne Shorter – tenor sax
Joe Henderson – tenor sax
Hard Bop: (Key Players)
Horace Silver – Sax – Norwalk, CT
Charles Mingus – Bass – AZ–> LA
Clifford Brown – Trumpet
Max Roach – Drums
Sonny Rollins – Tenor Sax – (From Brown/Roach Quartet)
Harlem Stride Piano (Players)

Eubie Blake – Baltimore, MD

James P. Johnson – New Brunswick, NJ – “Father of Stride Piano”

Fatts Waller – NYC

Art Tatum – Toledo, OH

Jazz Messengers (Original Members)
Art Blakey – Drums
Horace Silver – Piano
Hank Mobley – Tenor Sax
Kenny Dorham – Trumpet
Doug Watkins – Bass
Jazz Messengers (Trained on Piano)
Cedar Walton
Bobby Timmons
Keith Jarrett
Jazz Messengers (Trained on Sax)
Johnny Griffin
Jackie Hubbard
Lee Morgan
Wayne Shorter
Jazz Messengers (Trained on Trumpet)
Donald Byrd
Freddie Hubbard
Lee Morgan
Chuck Manigone
Jazz/Funk Fusion (Key Players/Bands)
Miles Davis – Trumpet
Lifetime (band)
Mahavishnu Orchestra (Band)
Herbie Hancock and Headhunters
Chick Corea and Return to Forever
Weather Report
Pat Metheny – Guitar
John Coltrane (Life)
Tenor Sax – Born in Hamlet, North Carolina
Hard Bop with Miles Davis
Left Davis sextet, formed Coltrane quartet
Became Avant Garde Musician
John Coltrane Quartet (Members)
McCoy Tyner – Piano
John Coltrane – Tenor Sax
Elvin Jones – Drums
Jimmy Garrison – Bass
Latin Jazz: Arturo “Chico” O’Farrell

– Arranger/composer

-created “afro-cuban jazz suite”

-Featured solos by Charlie parker, Flip Philips, Buddy rich

-arr. for count Bassie, Benny Goodman orchestra,

Latin Jazz: Mario Bauza

– Multi-instrumentalist > new york

-played lead trumpet with Cab Calloway

-played with Chick Webb Mechito orchestra with brother-in-law frank grillo

Lifetime (members)
Tony williams (drums, boston, MA)
John McGlaughlin – Guitar – Yorkshire England
Larry Young – Organ
Miles Davis (Birth of Cool Band Members)
Lee Conitz – alto sax
Jerry mulligan – sax
Al Hague – piano
Max Roach – drums
Gil Evans
Miles Davis (Quartet/Quintet Members)
Miles – trumpet
Coltrane – tenor sax
Red garland – piano
Paul chambers – Bass
“Philly” Joe Jones – Drums
Added Julian “Cannonball” Adderly – Alto Sax
Miles Davis After Coltrane (Members)
ron carter – bass
wayne shorter – tenor
herbie hancock – piano
tony williams – drums
Modern Jazz Quartet (Members)
John Lewis – Piano
Kenny Clark – Drummer (replaced by Connie Kay)
Percy Heath – Bassist
Milt Jackson – Vibes
Modern Jazz Quartet (Members)
Milt Jackson – Vibes
John Lewis – Piano
Percy Heath – Bass
Kenny Clark – Drums
New Orleans Jazz: (Key Players)

Charles “Buddy” Bolden – Cornet

Sidney Bechet – Clarinet/Soprano Sax

Jelly Roll Morton – Pianist/Composer

Ornette Coleman Quartet (Members)
Coleman – Alto Sax
Don Cherry – Trumpet
Charlie Haden – Bass
Billy Higgins – Drums
Paul Whiteman (Life)

– “king of jazz”

– NYC –> Hired the best white musicians on the scene including:

frank trumbauer – C Melody Saxophone

Jo Venuti – violin

Eddie Lang – guitar

Bix Beiderbecke – cornet

Swing Era Soloists: Guitar & Trombone
Jack Teagarden – Trombone
Guitar – Charlie Christian
Swing Era Soloists: Multi-Instrumentalists
Benny Carter (Sax/Trumpet/Arranger/Composer)
Swing Era Soloists: Piano

Teddy Wilson

Earl “Fatha” Hines

Swing Era Soloists: Tenor Sax

Ben Webster

Lester Young “prez”

Coleman Hawkins “hawk”/“bean”

Swing Era Soloists: Trumpet

Buck Clayton

Roy Eldridge

Charley Shivers

Harry “Sweets” Edison

Swing Era Soloists: Vocalists
Billie Holiday
Swing: Band Leaders & Instruments

Benny Carter – Band Leader

Harry James – Band Leader

Trumpet Trombonist/Band Leader – Tommy Dorsey

Trombonist/ Band Leader – Glenn Miller Clarinet/Band Leader – Artie Shaw

Third-Stream Music (Bands/Artists)
Gunther Schuller (composer)
Wayne Shorter (Life)
Wrote for art blakey’s band
Born/raised in newick new jersey
Played in army band
Had bad luck trying to get into the ny jazz scene
Became taxi driver
Pianist invites him to sub in for band –> hired
Weather Report (members)
Josef Zawinul – Piano – vienna
Wayne Shorter – sax
West Coast Jazz (Bands/Artists)
Stan Kenton – Piano
Lee Konitz
Art Pepper – alto/barritone sax
Bud Shank
Zoot Sims – Sax
William McKinney & McKinney’s Cotton Pickers (From, To)
Detroit –> NYC