Rhythm section
includes piano, guitar/banjo, drums, string bass/ tuba
Blues form
12 bar form used as the basis for many jazz compositions with a specific set of chord changes
texture of two or more melodies proceeding simultaneously
ride pattern
pattern played by rhythm section, usually cymbals. Quarter, two eighths, quarter, two eighths.
texture of two or more rhythms proceeding simultaneously
negro sacred song emphasizing biblical themes of divine comfort and liberation
technique used as part of the satire of African Americans in early Vaudeville and minstrel shows in which performers would burn the end of a cork and apply the resulting ash to the face
minstrel shows
featured white entertainers satirically impersonating African Americans joking, dancing, singing, and playing banjo, fiddle, and percussion instruments
featured songs, dances jokes, juggling, magic tricks, acrobatic stunts, bathing beauties, and trained animals
Blues scale
scale commonly used in jazz improvization that feature the lowered 3rd, 5th, and 7th degree of a major scale
Classic Blues
blues performed by black female singers in northern cities during the 1920s with piano accompaniment
stop time
type of solo accompaniment in which the band plays a simple, repeating rhythmic pattern while leaving gaps for the soloist to fill alone
call and response
an alternating dialogue btwn. individuals or groups common in much African American music, including jazz
an African American piano style of lively melodies & syncopated rhythms; popular in the early 20th century
hot jazz
early jazz style emphasizing bluesy effects, rhythmic intensity and extroverted self-expression (improv)
country blues
blues as originally performed by black males singing to self-accompaniment on guitar
juke joints
bars where blacks would gather to gamble, dance, drink and listen to country blues
tailgate trombone
New Orleans trombone style featuring careening glissandos, explosive accents, and other boisterous effects
brass bands
ensemble whose instrumentation influenced early jazz groups; performed in funerals and other parades
accentuation of rhythms that ordinarily go unaccented
ex: rhythmic emphasis placed on upbeats rather than downbeats
funeral parades
procession btwn. the church & cemetary
early Dixieland groups were based on this instrumentation and style of playing
sweet jazz
early jazz style of lilting melodies, rich harmonies, and orchestration, and serene rhythms; less improv and favored by whites
wah wah effects
sounds produced by brass players waving hemispherical objects back and forth at the end of the bell of their instrument
technique used by jazz piano and guitar players; chords are played in an improvised rhythm that interacts with the soloist and other members of the rhythm section
jazz standards
group of tunes, many of which originated on Broadway, that are considered the standard repertoire of jazz musicians
symphonic jazz
1920s fusion of jazz and classical music, intended for listening in the concert hall
walking bass
musical lilne featuring a note on every beat, played by the bass player
area of New orleans where slave descendants lived who relied on memorization and improvization
home to most of the theaters that staged musical theater productions; where many jazz standards originated
Gay Nineties
last decade of the 19th century, description of the carefree world of the white middle and upper classes; era of baseball, bicycles, barbershop quartets, and afternoon tea parties
Harlem Renaissance
blossoming of black art, culture, and literature in the early 1900s
banning of alcohol in the 20s that contributed to the reputation of jazz being unsavory
Great Migration
mass movement of blacks to the north to avoid discrimination
Tin Pan alley
area known for high conc. of songwriters and the unique sound that was produced as a result
notorious red-light district of New Orleans where uptown and downtown musicians played together
area of New Orleans where French-speaking Creoles lived who had access to European musical training
“The New Negro”
book of essays by black individuals based on the idea that blacks could be equal to whites in intellectual and cultural matters
Fisk Jubilee Singers
group established to raise money for the University that sang spirtiuals and slave songs
Freddie Keppard
successor to Buddy Bolden, became the most famous musician in New Orleans after Bolden went to the mental institution
Buddy Bolden
black cornetist. considered the “first jazz musician” lived a hard life and died in a mental institution
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
first jazz band to record, Feb 1917
Charley Patton
father of country blues; was among the first to record it
Hot 5/ Hot 7
groups with which Louis Armstrong made his first recordings as a leader
Scott Joplin
father of ragtime music from Missouri
Irving Berlin
composer who wrote many of the Broadway songs that would become the mainstay of the jazz repertoire
Louis Armstrong
trumpeter and one of the first great soloists
Bessie Smith
one of the primary artists of the classic blues
Paul Whiteman
sweet jazz bandleader who invented symphonic jazz
What choice best describes the characteristics of jazz?
features a large degree of improvisation and a steady beat
What are the standard instruments in a modern jazz rhythm section?
piano, guitar, bass, drum set
How did America’s love of novelty acts influence the early development of jazz?
gave jazz a reputation as a non-serious form of music
What was the name of the group who made the first jazz recording?
What are the characteristics of minstrel shows?
white performers who played stereotyped black characters, low pay, musical acts
What are the characteristics of Vaudeville Shows?
higher pay and featured musical acts along with juggling, acrobatics and magic
Why were Broadway and Tin Pan Alley influential in the development of jazz?
songs written there became standards of the jazz repertoire
What was the standard instrumentation of a Dixieland group?
clarinet, trumpet, trombone, piano, banjo, tuba, drums
What choice below best describes the negative influences on jazz in its early history?
associations with blacks, poorly trained musicians, alcohol, novelty acts and sex
What were the names of the two ethnic groups important to the development of jazz in New Orleans?
Creoles of Color and Quadroons/Octoroons
What was the line of succession of New Orleans Cornetists?
Buddy Bolden, Freddie Keppard, Joe Oliver, Louis Armstrong
Why was New Orleans significant in the development of jazz?
It was a mixture of cultures that helped spread early jazz to both blacks and whites
What was the significance of Congo Square to early jazz?
It was a gathering place where former slaves could meet and perform music of their home countries
How did jazz impact society in the period we’ve been discussing?
It caused controversy due to its roots in African music and association with bars and prostitution
What are the characteristics of West African music?
improvised, taught by ear, part of everyday life, layers of rhythm
What are the characteristics of European music?
trained musicians, used written music, for entertainment, sophisticated forms and harmony
How did Louis Armstrong influence Jazz?
was one of the first great soloists who changed the focus from group to individual improvisation
What are three early predecessors to jazz?
spirituals, ragtime, & marches
What choice describes what the form of a piece of music is?
The organization of sections is a piece of music
How were country blues different from slave songs and spirituals?
country blues were about negative events in one’s life, slave songs and spirituals were about going to a better life in the promised land after death
What were three elements that contributed to the nationwide spread of Dixieland and jazz?
The Great Migration, the Harlem Renaissance, and the Blues craze