Louis Armstrong: New Orleans and Chicago

  • N.O. – born there, takes lessons from Joe “king” Oliver
    • Later leads Oliver’s band when Oliver moves to CHI
  • CHI – Plays 2nd trumpet for Oliver, then leaves CHI
    • Returns to record Hot Fives/Hot Sevens

Louis Armstrong: Influence on Jazz

  • Most important figure in jazz – transforms it into an “art”
  • Influential as instrumentalist and vocalist
  • Greates trumpet player of his time – technique far beyond anyone;

Benny Goodman: Importance/Influence

  • Clarinet player – his band ushers in the “swing era”;
  • X-country tour made jazz youn people’s music – started most successful period in jazz
  • Advocate of integration in jazz 

Coleman Hawkins: Style

  • Influenced by Louis Armstrong
  • Huge sound, wide vibrato
  • Vertical improvisation – lots of arpeggios 

Coleman Hawkins: Influence

  • “Father of the tenor saxophone”
  • Replaces clarinet with saxophone in jazz
  • First great big band sax solist 
  • Influences development of Bebop

Duke Ellington: The Cotton Club

  • High end club in harlem 
  • Minstrel-type entertainment 
  • “Jungle Music” – Bubber Miley’s trumpet growl

Duke Ellington: Later Years

  • Writes many types of music – compositions longer
  • Nominated for Pulitzer Prize;
  • Grammy lifetime achievement award
  • Presidential medal of freedom;
  • Dies 1974 – 12,000 attend funeral

People/Style: Charlie Parker

  • “Bird” influenced by Lester Young -;Born in K.C
  • Incredible facility and Rhythmic innovations
  • Heavy drug use leads to death;

People/Style: Miles Davis

  • Grows up in St. Louis
  • Studies classical trumpet
  • Simpler style – fewer notes, middle register, more space

Miles Davis: What is his “genius”?

  • He could anticipate stylistic direction that jazz needed to take
  • He would adopt new styles before anyone and usher in new eras of jazz

Latin Jazz: Early Origins

  • West African and Caribbean rhythms influence the development of Jazz
  • Caribbean music travels to N.O.

People: Mario Bauza

  • “Father” of Afro-Cuban Jazz/Cubop;
  • Born in Havana, moved to NYC
  • 1939 – Forms band with Machito

People: Machito

  • Raised in Havana – one hell of a maraca player
  • Combines big band instrumentation and arrangement style w/ Cuban rhythm section

Style: Cuban Music

  • Rhythmic – dominated by percussion;
  • Clave = thythmic idea that everything is organized around
    • Syncopated way of delivering pulse

People: Tito Puente

  • Timbale Player – helped popularize Cuban music in America (although Puerto Rican)
  • WWII Vet – seved in 9 naval battles;
  • Graduated from Julliard;

Style: Samba

  • Percussion is syncopated and dominant force – use of unique instruments (tamborin, surdo)
  • Popularized in 30’s/40’s by Carmen Miranda movies
  • THE music of Carnival/the people of Brazil

Style: Bossa Nova

  • “New Flair” – initially popular among upper class
  • More laid back that Afro-Cuban and Samba

People: Antonio Carlos Jobim

  • Leading composer of Bossa Nova style
  • His music often performed by American jazz artists
  • Made famous by Stan Getz/Joao Gilberto

People: Joao Gilberto

  • Guitar player/singer;
  • Leading interpreter of Jobim songs

People/Style: Stan Getz

  • Sax – cool/sensitive sound, fluffy tone
  • Lester Young influence
  • Works with Joao Gilberto
  • Real big asshole

Style: Free Jazz

  • Free from musical restriction – removes structure from jazz
  • Allows artists to experiment;

People: Ornette Coleman

  • Recognized as first Free Jazz player
  • Does not want to be constrained by jazz or musical conventions
  • Use of “Harmelodics”

Ornette Coleman: “Harmelodics”

  • A musical phrase should not be determined by any underlying values of pulse or harmony

Free Jazz as Inevitability: Davis/Coltrane

  • Davis – modal music features slower harmony, requires less planning to execute;
  • Coltrane – expands modal conception allowing him to experiment w/ harmony

People: Sun Ra

  • Composer/band leader – mythical figure of Free Jazz
  • Believed AA’s were a myth of society – his music will lead AA’s to freedom;

Early Fusion: Miles Davis

  • Responsible for launching Fusion;
  • In A Silent Way;considered first fusion album – multiple electric pianos, organ, guitar, tape edits;

Fusion: Bitches Brew

  • Multiple chordal instruments/drummers, use of effects on trumpet
  • Psychedelic – Miles creates connection with younger audiences by integrating their music, fashion, etc.;

Style: Characteristics of Fusion;

  • Rhythmically/harmonically informed by whatever popular music style it is attempting to fuse
  • Adopts instrumentation of popular music styles
  • Experimentation/improvistion much more central then popular music

People: Herbie Hancock (and Head Hunters)

  • Pianist w/ Miles 2nd quintet – leaves to start his own groups
  • Important in the development/use of synthesizers
  • Head Hunters;- less rock influenced than Miles’ group, funk is fused
  • 80’s – focuses on commercial styles, still innovative

People/influence: Jaco Pastorius

  • Revolutionized electric bass by stripping it of its frets
  • Redefined articulation/facility people expected from Bass
  • Played bass with fingers – started this style

Band: Weather Report

  • Formed by Wayne Shorter (sax) and Joe Zawinul (keys) – Davis alums
  • Features bass virtuoso Jaco Pastorius

Band: John McLaughlin and the Mahavishnu Orchestra

  • British guitarist – worked w/Miles on “Bitches”
  • Fusion group that sounded most like rock-n-roll
  • Influential on creation of “prog-rock” (Rush, Dream Theatre, Yes, The Mars Volta);

Jazz in the 1970’s

  • Great decline in straight-ahead Jazz
  • Fusion artists able to sell more records – leads to saturation and need for change
  • Some musicians refuse to integrate Fusion (Blakey, Ellington, Mingus)

Jazz in the 1980’s: Young Lions

  • Young musicians who lead resurgence of straight-ahead jazz in 80’s 
  • Model their style after bebop/hard bop
  • Emphasize “swing” and “blues” as core of Jazz

Miles Davis: “dark” period

  • 6 years of cocaine, sex, and no music
  • Saw jazz as corrupt/racist industry – AA’s exploited by Whites
  • This period resulted in many health problems

People: Wynton Marsalis

  • Trumpet player – Born in N.O. to musical family – father = pianist, brother = sax
  • First artist to win Jazz AND Classical Grammy, also won Pulitzer
  • Dismissed/hated avant-garde and fusion
  • First important jazz musician to ally himself w/critics;

Today: Where and What is Jazz? (Marsalis)

  • Marsalis – most recognizable figure in present era, but hasn’t ushered in new style
  • Instead, he elevates Jazz by canonizing its past figures