Collective Improvisation
Simultaneous improvisation by all members of a group together.
The Origional Dixieland jazz Band
White New Orleans musicians who organized a band in Chicago during 1916 and played in New York in 1917
Chicago School
A group of young white chicagoans who emulated the styles of New Orleans musicians in the mid 1920s.
Left hand style used by early jazz pianists. It usually employs a bass note on the first and third beats of each measure and a chord on the second and fourth.
Front line
Musicians appearing directly in front of the audience; this designation is someimes used to separate hormen (because they stand in the front of a combo)from accompanists (who usually appear behind them)
Jelly Roll Morton
1.He was the first important Jazz composer, and several of his pieces became well known in rearranged form when played by other bands.
2. He was one of the first jazz musicians to balance composition with improvisation while retaining the excitement of collectively improvised jazz.
3. He recorded piano solos that were well-organized, forcefully executed musical statements with horn like lines.
4. He bridged the gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz by loosening ragtime’s rhythmic feeling and decreasing its embellishments.
James P. Johnson
(Pianist)Father of stride piano. one and three are base notes and two and four are chord notes, the right hand is very energetic. He relied less on dramatic devices and more on breathtaking flow demonstrating great virtousity. He had speed, precision, dexterity, and imagination that led him to win many of the solo pianist contest.
Fats Waller
6 of his recordings were #1 in the sales charts and many more were in the top ten. Perfect sence of rhythm. regularly broadcast in radio. He wasn’t take seriously because he made his work sound easy, clowning remarks. but his improvisations had real substance and they usually contained twists of harmony and rhythm that were subtle.
Earl Hines
Can be called brassy. Beause of the great physical force Hines used to strike the piano keys. Even when he played in a flowery way, a roughness remained in his sound.Rarely was anything sustained and nearly everything had punching quality. Because his right hand lines sometimes sounded like jazz trumpet playing the approach earned the title of trumpet-style of horn like. His piano lines even seemed to breathe at the momments a trumpeter would breathe. To manage the task of cutting through he played very hard, phrased like a trumpeter and doubled his right hand melody lines in octaves. He paved the way for modern jazz pianists who solo with essentially the same conception that is used by jazz trumpeters and saxophonists. It is less flowery and more direct. Less clasical pianist and more swinging. More flexible than ragtime or stride approaches, highly syncopathed left hand that freed the hand from stride piano comping.
Louis Armstrong
Trumpet singer, entertainer father of jazz took jazz to the world and made it popular. Joined Joe “King” Oliver’s band. Most significant recordings were made in 1927 and 1928. appeared in close to 50 movies and sang in most of his post 1930 performances. Approached jazz with solo improvisation rather than group improvisation. Killed ragtime stiffness. Swung the 8th notes. Syncopated, playing before or after the beat which provides the jazz mellowness. Brought drama to jazz, solo was to build tension, double time solo break was to achieve maximum excitement. He broke away from the melody and improvised original, melody like lines that were compatible with the tune’s chord progression. He had a brassy tone and a remarcable range. Brought new orleans vocab and extended it. Singing style influenced american singers. Popularized scat singing.
Bix Biederbecke
Trumpeter, he was the opposite to armstrong he was not hot he was cool. Subtle manner not loud. Constrained solos. He liked to combine unusuall notes together.
Vocal Blues
hornmen often decorated their melodylines with the ornaments of pitch and tone quality that blues singers used.