quality of sound or tone color
physical devises put on bell of instrument to distort the sound
timbre variation
unusual sounds for expressive purposes throat growling sounds i.e. wa-wa ya-ya sound
what is major purpose for using timbre?
wind instruments
aka horns, blow air into for sound
bass, guitar
b.rhythm section
a.improvise in the spotlight
wobble in pitch
how to change sound in wind instruments?
1. change length of tube
2. blow with more force
shaping and positioning of lips/facial muscles; increases speed of air in a dramatic way
higher pitches caused by secondary vibrations of main sound wave
what instrument uses a mouthpiece? what does this do?
brass i.e. trumpet and cornet; creates a buzz mving the column of air and produce tones
what do brass instruments have instead of holes?
valves; used to control air in the passageway of tubing of various lengths
a.harmon mute
b.plunger mute
a.hollow mute with hole in center; w/ or w/o tube in center, mainly w/o
b.sink plunger
aka smear; player glides seamlessly from one note to another
reed instruments
mouthpiece b/t lips, i.e clarinet and sax
harmony instuments
part of rhythm sect. include vibraphone, organ sythesizer, electric piano, guitar and banjo, most important = piano
pluckig strings with their fingers (common in bass)
one man percussion section w/in rhythm sect.?
drum kit/drum set; bass drum, snare, cymbals footpedals tom-toms
term to indicate VOLUME
free rhythm
like breathing, aka “breath rhythm” constant and can be sped up or slowed down
classical word for unaccompanied passage of brilliant vituosity
familiar melody speeds up and slows down i.e. “over the rainbow” by Tatum
what are the types of meter? (name 3)
duple (most common)- patterns of 2 or 4
triple- groups of 3 i.e. waltz
irregular- i.e. 1-2-3,1-2
where begin counting
ryhthmic contrast
simultaneous use o contrasting rhythms
foundation layers
continuous unchanging patterns
“keeping time”
pulse, foundation layers
call and response
a statement by one musician (call) immediately answered by a counter statement (response)
(jazz slang) what does it mean to have “big ears?”
to be ready to respond at any given moment
strong accent contradicts basic meter
explain ‘groove’ and ‘swing groove’
grove is combining a stead 4-beat rhythm in bass & cymbal with a backbeat; a swing groove means to divide the main beat in an interesting way
what is the term there really isnt a definition for?
measured by frequency or vibrations/sec
half step
interval seperating each note
major mode vs. minor mode
major- most basic scale in western music; minor- different halfstep/wholestep pattern DIFFERENCE IN 3RD DEGREE SCALE
playing in tune
melodic phrases, short or long
repeated melody; usually short
any melody that repats insistently
harmonic progression
series of chords placed in strict rhythmic sequence
what are stable chords called? unstable?
consonant, dissonant
end of a phrase where chord progression rests; half or full
harmonic substitutions
replacing chords with ones they like
what is texture? what are the types?
texture = the way it balances the harmony and melody.
types= homophony (supported by harmonic accompaniment) monophony (melody exists on its own) polyphony ( 2+ melodies of equal interest played same time)
stop time
different monomphonic texture; series of breaks, 3x a bar or once every bar