having verses, repetitive melody
rhythms not in obvious places
many rhythms at the same time
*too irregular: not common in America
color/sound quality of something
blue note
“grace note”, bending note, slightly out of tune, between 2 pitches
syncopate, rough up sound to make sound more interesting
invention of the phonograph (Edison)
first commercially successful recording, 78 rpm (deeper grooves, slow rotations, better quality
early slang term for sex
(like rock’n’roll)
stop time
repetitive rhythm pattern that isn’t the regular pattern
first jazz recording EVER.
Original Dixieland Jazz Band (white group)
First nationwide commercial networks
First sound film “The Jazz Singer”
Vernon and Irene Castle
popularized couple (ballroom) dancing
Scott Joplin
-most prominent ragtime composer
-African American
-“Maple Leaf Rag”
Louis Armstrong
-first famous soloist
-mixed jazz and blues
Jelly Roll Morton
-first famous jazz composer
-claims to have invented jazz
Joe Oliver
-trumpet/band leader
-Creole Jazz Band
Earl Hines
-imitated Louis Armstrong
-style: single note solos
composing and performing at the same time
-practical b/c no use of sheet music
-lengthened songs and decreased memorized material
Bing Crosby
-singer, actor
-funded development of first microphone
-changed recording and performing environment
Paul Whiteman
-“King of Jazz”
-mixed jazz into dance music
-28 #1 records
Castle House Rag
ragtime turned mainstream
Gene Austin
-early “crooner”
-“My Blue Heaven”
James P. Johnson
-stride piano (smoother, more modern, improvisation, than ragtime)
Blind Lemon Jefferson
-Freer African storytelling style
-Blues singing style
W.C. Handey
-Blues sensibility with Tin Pan Alley style
-Urban blues
Bessie Smith
“Empress of the Blues”
Robert Johnson
-“sold his soul to the devil to play better”
Jimmie Rodgers
“Father of Modern Country Music”
-blue yodels
The Carter Family
-gospel/ fiddle tunes
-country/hillbilly music
rural blues
-country/hillbilly music
-spread by radio
-discoverd by guys looking for Blues artists in the south
race records
Blues records (blacks)
First three national broadcast stations
Al Jolson
-black face, mistrel, vaudeville
-Jazz Singer
-theatrical style
1877 invented by Thomas Edison
-originally to record President talking
First record company
Columbia, Victor Talking Machine Company
First black jazz recording
Joe Oliver’s Creole Band 1923
-blue notes
-story/image oriented, feeling not linear
-12 bar
Stephan Foster
-pop music popularized
-memorable melodies
-composer 200+ songs published
John Sousa
-one of the 1st to make commercially selling records
-fixed copyright laws
Tin Pan Alley
-independent publishers in Manhattan
-center for American pop
-simple, catchy songs (shift from 1800s)
Why Jazz in New Orleans?
-cultural environment
-French and Spanish influence (interracial marriage)
-slaves, free blacks, refugees, Caribbean, Italian refugees
-PORT CITY ($ tourism, entertainment)
Chicago Style Jazz
-white musician majority
-more integration
-Bix Beiderbecke (trumpet)
Popular instruments
trumpet, clarinet (melody)
piano/tuba/bass- pulse (boom)
banjo/guitar/drums- steady rhythm (chick)
African influence
-backbeat drum
-blues: hopeful undertones
-oral tradition, no music notation
European influence
instrumentation, chord progression
-folk music
European influence
instrumentation, chord progression
-folk music
Fats Waller
stride piano, dynamics
Meade Lewis
Boogie Woogie style