Movement had its peak in 1960s to mid 1970s

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

Harder for younger generations to appreciate, more mature minds can embrace it

“free Jazz”- without limit, more of a specific type of music

this term literally means “before or ahead”, new thing-“get ahead of your peers”=snobbiness & egotism

“free jazz” is specfically is a subset of avant-garde improv that is not tied to a traditonal chord progression

  • can sometimes have a spontaneously generated chord progression or no chord progression at all
  • tempo can be free or there maybe no discernable beat at all
  • traditional melodies are rare
  • disregarding the notion of chord progression all together not something that is cyclical
  • often involves collective improvisation: more than one musician improvising at one time. haven’t heard this since early jazz period in New Orleans, but did so under certain guidelines or rules/roles; but now have potentially the entire band going at it limitlessly reacting to what they hear or trying to get other musicians to follow them, trying to make music without parameters
  • basic premise behind free jazz is that sonic textures are more important than melodies
  • sonic texture: tone colors (darker or warmer sounds, more edge or richness) are blended like mixing trumpet with piano blending their sounds
  • musicans are trying to find new ways to reach the audience , motived by sonic tetxure
  • drummers arent time keepers, play melodies
  • not mainstream jazz, only 3% of total
  • critized b/c it is believd that these free jazz musicans arent as skilled, it is like they coped out for easier jazz, they play free b/c they arent able to change the chords skillfully

Ornette Coleman

alto sax

composer ; band leader

one of the most influential of avant-garde

as significant as Charlie Parker was to Bebop

considered to be one of the most prolific post bop composers

Don Cherry

trumpet(pocket trumpet)

composer ; band leader;

sideman w/ Ornette Coleman

  • “Chronology”

Cecil Taylor


composer ; band leader

alternative, wild ; turbulent sound

employs syncopation, away from Swing pianists;

Albert Ayler

tenor sax



had some influence on John Coltrane

use entire range of tenor

usual high pitch if tenor alticimo, was one of the first to play this tone;

Charles Mingus


composer ; band leader

one of the most active

avant-garde but not free jazz

very vocal in Civil Rights Movement= music protests to social injustice, outspoken

combined improv with combo while creatively altering accompainment

  • arrangement was open, he would have 3/4 backgrounds and then just point to one of those to play
  • doesnt decide ahead of time
  • arrangement was on the spot


Eric Dolphy

alto sax

unusual virtualoso

development years was Bebop

composer, similar to Monk=off center thinking

Roland Kirk (Rahsaan)

tenor sax

circular breathing, created constant air stream=breathing in while blowing out

Sun Ra

electric keyboard (pianist)

lead a Charles Mingus-sized-big-band

incorporated World Music elements (African percussion)

Duke Ellington writing

collective improv=more than one musican improv at the same time

Chicago based



Association Advancement of Creative Musicians

“artist incubation”

moved-not in one location

meeting place


Founded by Muhal Richard Abrams (composer)

best received band under AACM “Art Ensemble of Chicago”

  • popular
  • Lester Bowie=a co leader ; trumpet player

World Saxophone Quartet;

“free” improv

classical ensemble=instruments were classical (2 alto, 1 tenor, 1 barotone)

no saprano which was usual;


Bill Evans;

1st generartion pianist

composer ; band leader

part of Miles Davis Classic Quintet (Kind of Blue)

most influential since Bud Powell

somewhat Cool, own original style

“chord voicings” ; modal harmony

approach to harmony different (selection of notes)

  • selection of notes (4th interval)
  • usuallly play interval of 3, meaning distance of 3 keys
  • he played the 4th interval, which is more modern sound

influential ; unique piano trio

  • Bass=Scott LaFaro (great agility on the instrument, no physical challenges for him)
  • Drums=Paul Motian
  • Piano=Bill
  • played different, rare sounds
  • “Solar” played in class

Bill adapted rich, classical harmonies (French composer influence)=chords had 6-7 diff notes

big influence on other pianists

influenced by;Art Tatum ; Bud Powell

McCoy Tyner;

;Post Bop pianist-1st generation;

John Coltrane’s quartet

composer, band leader

major influence Bud Powell

Benny Golson’s Jazztet co-lead with Art Farmer-began as their pianist, then joined Coltrane

A-toner sound

left Coltrane b/c felt drowned out by percussion

hard accent w/ left hand

“Passion Dance”-song w/ Elvin Jones (Coltrane’s quartet)

Ahmad Jamal 

Post Bop pianist-1st generation

ocassional composer

band leader

piantist have cited him for using “space (silence, lack of playing, no notes played, break in notes, etc.)

unique extended, multi-tonal music (implies elements of being in more than one key)

extended vamp (short, repeated pattern)

influence on the freahness of jazz


Cedar Walton

Post Bop pianist-1st generation

Composer, band leader

First w/ Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers

then, Art Farmer’s Jazztet w/ Benny Golson

sideman for Coltrane’s “Giant Steps”

led “Eastern Rebellion”

improvization like Horace Silver (shorter, catchy phrase)


Modern Jazz

Bebop ; onward

the change in thinking

approach to improv based on harmonies

Harrison’s definition: is Post-Bebop

1st generation Post Bop pianists

Bill Evans

McCoy Tyner

Ahmad Jamal

Cedar Walton

2nd generation Post Bop pianists

10 years younger than other 4 

Bill Evans inspired

sideman w/ Miles Davis

chord construction

 Herbie Hancock, Keith Jarrett, Chick Corea

Herbie Hancock

Post-Bop pianist-2nd generation

electric piano (keyboard)

composer, band leader


over-dubbing (two layers of music)

@ age 11, classical piano Chicago symphany (child prodegy)

Miles Davis 2nd famous Quintet

refined Bill Evan’s style ; other pianists (Duke Ellington, Oscar Peterson, George Shearing, Winton Kelly)=he transrcibed their solos by taking what they improvized music to learn how to play and imitate them

“Dolphin Dance” -Maiden Voyage;

Led “Head Hunters” which had a huge commerical success =”Chameleon”

highly in demand gig-man (sideman)

Only Grammy Winner-The Album of the Year: “The River”

“Tell Me a Bedtime Story”

“The Rocket” song=break dancers


Chick Corea


Post-Bop pianist, 2nd generation

electric keyboard

composer, band leader

hearily influenced by Bill Evans, Horace Silver, Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell

classically trained pianist

“crisp” playing=tended to play short notes

Spanish themes ; Latin-American rhythms


  • popularized the use of 4ths interval (skip two keys inn b/w chords, more spread out=Modern Sound)
  • Bill Evans started this trype of playing


“Senor Mouse”-song on Crystal Silence album (w/ vibraphonist Gary Burton, no drums/bass)

“Return to Forver”-led this fusion band (usually fusion is jazz w/funk & rock but this was with Latin American & Spanish)= Chick Corea Electric Band

Chick Corea Acoustic Band=”La Vista”


Keith Jarret

Post-Bop pianist-2nd generation

composer, band leader

doesn’t use much electric piano

child prodegy, Art Blake’s Jazz Messengers

Arnold Coleman-inspired him (trumpet)

long, windy phrases

most original pianist, composer of 1970s

combined Jazz & funk

one of the most successful solo concert pianists in jazz history(may be the only solo pianist in concert stage)

led Quartet 

  • combined influence of Bill Evans & Arnold Coleman
  • blend country world music elements
  • “Autumn Leaves” ->piano trio (piano, bass, and drums)


jazz/rock fusion

blending of jazz(instrumental) w/ rock & funk (vocal)

jazz improv transported into another medium 

dominant in 1970s

primary differences:

  • phrase lengths (jazz=longer w/4 or 8 bar, rock/funk=short w/ 2 bar)
  • frequency of chord changes harmonic progression, jazz=faster
  • melody complexity, jazz=more complex, rock/funk=catchy, melodies
  • harmony complexity, jazz=complex chords
  • amt of improv, jazz more emphasis on improv
  • reptition of melodic phrases, short chord progression,drum patterns, & bass lines (rock/funk=more) 

Roots of Fusion:

  • improv style of John Cotrane & McCoy Tyner
  • accompanying patterns of Pop & RnB bands (rhythm section)
  • songs based on vamps (short repeated patterns)
  • popularity of electric bass, guitar, keyboard (1st bass making company=Fender)
  • additon of auxiliary percussion instruments

Artisits: Miles, Herbie Hancock, Larry Coryell (guitar), Gary Burton (vibraphone)

guitar took leading role in fusion b/c in rock guitar is essential

tone-change, new sound

John McLaughlin



one of the most prominent since Wes Montgomery

phrase-changed (played long)

solo playing, change in jazz

breath-like phrases

change guitar approach to improv


Larry Coryell


fusion (blend w/rock,blues, country=Texas)

style (showed same amt of proficiency in jazz & rock

Pat Metheney


one of biggest name in 1970-80s

1st recording as Gary Burton’s sideman

infleunced jazz guitarists

first to incorporate electronic elements in his signature sound

effect sound of guitar: fuzzy sound, wahh wahh, chorus-;constantly used thing

His chorus sound was extremely popular (chorus=digital copy made of note, played ;it out of tune, so two notes played. mimic like having 2 players even though just 1)


Jaco Pastorius

electric Bass

most influential in making this popular in Jazz

Hiram Bullock


member of the David Letterman Band

featured sideman with a lot of high-profiled artists

majority of his recordings were as a sideman:

Miles Davis

Gil Evans

Marcus Miller

David Sanborn

John Scofield;



recorded with:

Miles Davis


Joe Henderson

Charles Mingus

Herbie Hancock

Pat Metheny

has a lot of musical depth/breadth: equally skilled in playing bop and fusion/funk/blues/soul

high in demand as studio musician

mainstream jazz w/ fusion-tinge


Bass Desires-Band (traditional=2 guitar, 1 bass)

Mike Stern


career as a sideman: spent a large part of his career as a sideman– shouldn’t be interpreted as a lack of ability, says they are so versatile and in-demand that they are constantly being called upon by other musicians to play with them


Joe Henderson

Michael Brecker

Jaco Pastorius

Blood Sweat & Tears

greater recorded output as a leader than Hiram Bullock

5-time grammy nominee

jazz and jazz fusion musician of his time: dual career paths

known for being able to blend bebop with rock (such depth of understanding of various styles of music)

“Good bye Again”=fusion, david sandstone on sax

“Moment’s Notice”

Joe Zawinul

pianist, composer, bandleader.
First rose to recognition as a sideman with Cannonball Adderley (from 1961-1970).
Composed all of the music on Miles Davis album “In a silent way” (his first full blown electric album, also featured John McLaughlin)
  • we don’t really consider him as an official sideman with Miles Davis because he wasn’t in the touring band. He had a studio association with Miles Davis (played some electronics on recordings and composed tunes)
  • co-founded Weather Report with saxophonist Wayne Shorter (who was part of Miles’ 2nd great quintet) and Miroslav Vitous
  • one of the proponents of electric keyboards, along with Herbie Hancock and Chick Corea (the main 3 who helped it become an accepted sound in jazz)

Weather Report

(jazz, rock, funk and fusion band):
one of the most influential fusion bands of the 1970s and early 1980s
  • ironically Joe Zawinul stated in Downbeat that he didn’t understand what the term fusion meant. As bandleader they probably wanted to encompass several different interests/influences of theirs and assemble a band that could incorporate all of them
  • Zawinul and Shorter met in 1959 when they were both sidemen with Maynard Ferguson’s big band (Ferguson was a trumpeter who started out in the Stan Kenton band). Zawinul went on to play with Cannonball and Shorter went on to play with Miles Davis. They both made significant names for themselves as jazz composers. Joe Zawinul later joined up again with Shorter to do some of the recordings with Miles Davis.
  • the way jazz press often assumed Weather Report was a Miles Davis clone band because Zawinul and Shorter were both associated with Miles Davis.
  • music they played covered a broad range of styles: jazz, latin jazz, ethnic music (of different countries/cultures), funk, rock, R&B
  • utilized collective improvisation and showed some similarities to avante garde
  • non traditional instrument roles, particularly with the rhythm section: didn’t use the rhythm section as traditional time keepers. Sometimes had bass player play the melody while Zawinul played low notes on the synthesizer. The drums were often used as a color-producing instrument.
  • early period is more consistent with free jazz/ avante garde (listened to Suru Cucu, notice unconventional instrument roles and collective improvisation)
  • went through a transformation around 1976 when Miroslav Vitous new bass player Jaco Pastorius (1951-1987)came in.
  • Jaco played electric bass and fretless electric bass (which is the same finger board that an upright bass would have. there’s more of a challenge to play the bass in tune) but not acoustic bass. Playing fretless gave him a warmer, richer sound but made playing electric bass exponentially more difficult– required him to place his fingers in exactly the right spot for perfect intonation. Jaco was considered the first virtuoso (fretless or no) on the electric bass. Influenced Marcus Miller, Stanley Clark, Victor Wooten

listened to “Birdland”, notice Jaco plays melody and Zawinul plays low notes on the synthesizer

interestingly, Weather Report never had a guitar player

Modern Jazz

Trends that emerged in 80s and 90s that are jazz derivatives
       New age music: creation of 1980s still present today, not enjoying anywhere near popularity of 80s and 90s
      Hybrid of jazz and classical (may be considered another fusion, just given another title) with some pop and rock influence
      Primarily a background type of music, does not have hard edge that fusion has
      Kind of music that you can work to or might hear when you are sitting in doctors or dentists office; hip form elevator music
       Inimalist classical influence: branch of classical music associated with 3 composers [Steve Wrike, Phillip glass, John Adams]; slowly evolving textures, no abrupt changes in harmony or notes
       Piano dominated; sometimes resembled concert music of pianist Keith Jerret (most successful concert solo jazz pianist)
       Played in class: “Mountain Dance” Dave Grusend; Soprano Sax, bass, percussion (tabla-Indian origin)
       Key payers in forefront of New Age
      George Winston
       Paul Winter Consort
      Oregon: played in class :Soprano Sax, bass, coronet, percussion (tabla-Indian origin)
Smooth Jazz

       1980s to present thought hinted at years earlier decade and a half earlier
       Background type of music
       Sonically similar to new age but has much more active drums and bass; more prominent groove
       Highly commercial genre; record labels drove popularity-record labels often dictated lyrics and material recorded
       Wes Montgomery 1965 jazz standard “Here’s That Rainy Day” foreshadows smooth jazz
       1970s forerunners: Grover Washington (sax), George Bensen (guitar & vocal), Earl Klugh (guitar), Bob James (keyboard)
       Popular radio adult radio format of 1990s (age 35 and up)
       Forced mainstream jazz off commercial radio
       Played in class: “She Is Michelle” Gato Barbieri 1978
       Analogous to cool
       Muzac: elevator music
       Kenny G, David Benoit, Rick Braun, Dave Koz
       George Bensen: More of a hard bopper, came along in mid-60s
       Played in class: “The Cooker”
      Recorded album called “Breezin”: album that changed the way many musicians thought opened the door to what was smooth jazz
Soul Saxists

contemporary jazz

merging funk & soul w/classical jazz



Stanley Turrentine

tenor sax

contributor to Soul Saxists

influenced mainly by Blues musicians

Macy O’ Conner

alto sax

James Brown’s band

Soul Saxist

King Curtis


not play Bebop or Cool

plays Blues

Soul Saxist

Hank Crawford

alto sax

one of the main contributors to Soul Saxists

Grover Washington

alto & tenor sax

blues phrases (not like Bebop, more Hardbop improv) 

vaulted to fame with the Mr. Magic (huge commercial success, raised popularity of guitarist on album-> Eric Gale)


David Sanborn 

alto sax

distinctive sound

hard edge

powerful, focused sound like sonic lazer beam

Blues sound like Hank

highly sought after for recording sessions

played w/ James Brown, Stevie Wonder, Jaco Pastorious, Brecker Brothers, George Bensen, & Eagles

played “Snakes” 


Micheal Brecker

tenor sax


ewi-electronic wind instrument (not keyboard based, synthisizer, allowed saxophonists to play synthisizer like thye would play their sax)

widely regarded as the most influential tenor sax since John Coltrane

started SNL House band

brother Randy Brecker (Brecker Brothers Band led together)->”Above & Beyond” played

founder & co-led band “Steps Ahead”

  • NY recording session players joined together
  • commercial type recording
  • acoustic instruments but not as traditional
  • progressive approach to melody & harmony
  • blurred & changed the role of instruments
  • “Suspone” played-> Micheal on ewi & Mike Stern composer & guitar player

Latin Jazz

serge in 1980s

Mambo, salsa, bossa nova

combo of Bebop improv w/ Caribbean and/or South American music

“clave”-repeating rhythmic pattern (2 bar, so 3-2 clave or 2-3 clave)

dance music

involved percussion (Congo drums)

Latin American elements been around since 1940s (Dizzy first in “Mantaka” which means heroin, Stan Kenton, Chano Pozo who collaborated w/ Dizzy, George Shearing, Cal Tjader, Stan Getz) 

Chano Pozo

percussionist (hand)

Bongo & Congo drums


Bebo Valdes



son Chucho Valdes & grandson Chuchito Valdes who were also pianists

Mario Bauza
Tito Puente
percussionist (Timbalies)
Paquito D’Rivera
alto sax & claroniet 
Arturo Sandoval



Eddie Palmieri


“Chocolate Ice cream”

Dr. Bobby Rodrigues


UCLA Professor

UCLA Latin Jazz Big Band director

“Hub Cap” played

Neo-Classic Jazz

1980s & onward

spund of hardbop returns

return to acoustic instruments (except amplified guitar)

however, still advancing harmony

Marsolis Family associated w/ this movement


Ellis Marsalis

educator/pianist/composer/band leader,

4/7 children jazz musicians, 

hard to find albums b/c small & independent labels not as easy to track as large companies,

teaching approach was different -> encourage students to learn through intensive listening of artists they admired and make music discoveries on own


Bradford Marsalis

tenor sax

Ellis’ oldest son

composer, band leader

began w/barotone w/ Art Blakey

played w/ bro Winton Marsalis’ Quintet

leader & sideman w/ lots of others like Sting & Tina Turner

bandleader for Tonight’s show 

“Yes or No”

played a ton of notes


Winton Marsalis


composer, band leader, educator

one of the most prominent jazz musicians in Modern Jazz

combo of skill, sophisticated

impressive knowledge (& about many trumpet players)

“Caravan” played

Freddie Hubbard & Clifford Brown influence

currently artistic director of Jazz Orchestra @ Lincoln Center in NY. ( nationwide competiton for high school bands, recreate Duke Ellington)

attended Julliard

Delfeayo Marsalis


producer-best known for Jazz record producer

lower recorded output as older bros

coined phrase, “to obtain a more woodlike sound from the bass the album was recorded w/o a dreaded base direct”

“Big Train” he produced with 2 bros

“All Aboard” played


Jason Marsalis


malut percussion

child prodegy

most musically talented of bros

poly rhythms= two conflicting patterns that go on at the same time

Diana Krall

vocalist, pianist, band leader

commercially successful like Winton

From Canada

started playing at age 4

came from a musical family 

reallly admired Nat King Cole from young

attended Berkelee School of Music (Jazz Conservatory)

Ray Brown convinced her to leave Canada for LA

one of the most internationally known jazz musicians

“Hit that Jire Jack” played

“All for You” dedicated to Nat King Cole

Vocal Jazz

·      Not talking about Diana Krall being a singer or vocalist or Diana Reeds; not talking about singer performing in front of a combo

·      Describes music that incorporated the vocalese concept

o   Style of jazz singing in which lyrics are written for melodies that were originally part of an all instrumental composition or improvisation—after the fact; or an interesting solo (legendary) that is retrospectively written lyrics for it

o   Fit lyrics according the existing melody

o   Do not confuse this with scat singing style in which vocalists improvise in the same style that instrumentalists improvise—using neutral syllables

§  Believed that Lewis Armstrong was the first to do it

§  When music sheet fell off while recording imrpvosed the melody

o   Early masters of vocalese technique

§  King Pleasure

ú  1922-1981

ú  Clarence Beaks real name

ú  “Moody’s Mood For Love”: hit, biggest song

·      lyrics came from improvisation of older pop song for “I’m In The Mood For Love”

·      James Moody Saxophonist played a solo for I’m in the mood or love in the bridge section that turned out to be very catchy which was recorded

·      Eddie Jefferson took the bridge section of his improvisation and wrote vocalese lyrics to his solo thereby creating a new song around the solo calling it Moody’s Mood For Love

Eddie Jefferson

ú  lyracist

ú  highly charismatic

ú  wrote lyrics for (vocalese) for Moody’s Mood For Love

Karen Alysson

ú  Voclese lyricist

ú  “FootPrints” composed by Wayne Shorter

·      selected all tunes that became instrumentals from the beginning and added lyrics to them after the fact

Kurt Elling

ú  Widely admired vocalist and lyricist

ú  Many very highly devoted fans but also a lot of dislike

·      Acquired taste singer

ú  Employs scat and vocalese: athletic type vocalist, lots of power he exudes and his tone is not a rich rippling baritone voce heard from Frank Sinatra

ú  “Resolution” composed by John Coltrane second part of A Love Supreme album

·      Kurt plays with big band led by sax composer Bob Mincer

ú  Vocal groups more common not with soloists

Lambert Hendricks and Ross

ú  Dave Lambert, Jon Hendricks: highly accomplished scat singer , Annie Ross: British singer

ú  First album Sing a Song of Bassie

·      Reduction of classic Count Bassie band recordings

ú  Sing Along With Bassie

·      Recorded along with Count Bassie band

ú  “Everyday I have The Blues”

ú  Started the trend of group vocalese

Singers Unlimited

ú  first widely successful four part vocal grup

ú  four part harmony: SATB soprano alto tenor bass

ú  3 men and 1 woman

ú  based in Chicago, commercial recording session singers by day 

Manhattan Transfer

ú  first internationally successful four part group

ú  2 men 2 women; 2 bass 2 soprano

ú  A Capella jazz vocal singing :vocices without accompaniment 

The New York Voices

ú  Considered to be top of the heap; most respected group out there today

ú  Four part vocal ensembles

ú  1980

ú  “Moment’s Notice” John Coltrane; merged scat singing to john coltranes tenor solo and vocalese 

Take Six

ú  1980 but still underground unheard of in 1998

ú  Six part all male group

ú  Highly gospel and some R&B

ú  Harmony is much more dense

ú  “So Much To Say” all sounds made by the human body

The Real Group

ú  Out of Sweden

ú  Never toured North America

ú  5 part group: 3 women 2 men

ú  most Acapella

Repertory Jazz Orchestra

Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra (NY)

Chicago Jazz Orchestra

Clayton Hamilton Jazz Orchestra (LA)

primarily play Classical 

very similar to Neo-classical jazz

Clayton Hamilton Jazz Orchestra

led by John & Jeff Clayton & Jeff Hamilton

Neo classic


John Clayton


composer, arranger

one of the most in demand

Diana Krall’s band


Bob Mintzer

big band leader

“Arrangement of Revolution”

Maria Schneider

composer, arranger


takes elements of Neoclassical

reminder of Pat Metheney

“Hang Glinding” 

Joe Lovano

tenor sax


Eric Alexander

tenor sax


Joshua Redman

tenor sax

idolized Hardbopper Gene Ammons

John Coltrane & Micheal Brecker too

“Sweet Sarrow”


Terrance Blanchard 


band leader

composer, done film composing for Spike Lee’s 

unfortunate timing (shadow of Winton Marsalis)


Roy Hargrove
Terrell Stafford 


East Coast-Philly

Clayton Bros’ Quintet


Russell Malone


play chord melodies well

most technically proficient guitarist out there

was Diana Krall’s guitarist


Anthony Wilson


Gerral Wilson’s son

was UCLA Guitar Professor but now Diana Krall’s guiartist

Bobby Broom


unique yet still Neo-classical style

Geroge Bensen, Wes Montgomery, Grant Green=admired them

“House of the rising sun” played

Christian McBride

Bass-acoustic & electric

played with Diana Krall’s first quartet


Tamir Handleman


UCLA Jazz piano professor

so in-demand

“huge ears”=able to listen to recording and replicate on the spot, hear something someone played and develop it into his playing



Josh Nelson


plays w/ vocalist Sara Gazarek

“My Shining Hour” 

Chicago Jazz Orchestra 

Neo Classic style

Leader Charley Harrison

Kurt Elling vocalist

Sax-John W.

“Jeannine” played


John Coltrane’s Famous Quartet

McCoy Tyner piano

Jimmy Garrison Bass

Elvin Jones Drums