When was the swing era
Depression Era Context (early 1930s onward)
Itinerant bands
Traveled from coast to coast
“Swing Beat”
explosion in popularity, gave name to the style at large
“Orchestrated” Louis: Bigger Band
numerous trumpets, clarinets, and trombones
Swing Style from the transition between Early Jazz to Swing
The sound of jazz has gone through an explosive change in virtually every musical category – pitch, instrumentation, timbre, form
Leader instruments during the swing era
Practice of usually taking first solo chorus (often times a reliable tip-off to the leader of the band you’re listening to)
Transitional Instrumental Focus
Slowly but surely shrinking to the saxophone (through the clarinet) over the trumpet as the most prolific jazz instrument (This will arrive fully w the onset of Bebop)
In Swing there was more virtuosity…
Extreme ranges of brass instruments, more complicated arrangements, “trading” measures, and evolution of “collective improvisation” into sectionalized improvisation
Kansas City Stylistic Traits
Count Basie orchestra, boogie-woogie piano style, “head” arrangment, noconcrete or unclear melody/head, more complicated use of instrumentation, lester young playing style as epitome of kansas city style, more “relaxed” sound
Count Basie Orchestra
Most swinging band
“Head” Arrangement
most songs are just made up in their heads
No concrete or unclear melody/head
Replaced by riffs or variations on riffs
Tailgate Trombone Style
Glissando w “growl”
African American Swing Trombonists
Ellington Trombonists and Improvisers: Lawrence “Trummy” Young, Miff Mole, “Tricky” Sam Nanton, Juan Tizol (Hispanic)
Caucasian Swing Trombonists
Tommy Dorsey (Lots of vibrato, extreme high register, lyrical) Glen Miller and they were not improvisers (Melodists)
Bebop Trombonists
JJ Johnson
New Bebop stylistic traits (by comparison w Swing)
Faster, higher energy, more demands on techniccal playing, smaller groups, more and quicker chorus lines, instrumental focus on saxophone,