Number of bars in a song form
not officially jazz because there is not improvisation; one of the sources of info for jazz; important for jazz inspiration; is has march form but is different from the march because of the relationship between the treble and bass;

syncopated right hand; downbeat left hand

The importance of the march
(1) it is the basic structure of ragtime and (2)the function of the instruments: woodwinds have a decorative function – embellishing the brass players (brass is king). This idea of brass and woodwinds doing something else is the root of the march.
Scott Joplin
Best known ragtime composer
Maple Leaf Rag
Scott Joplin; the left hand uses a stride technique (base and chord that keeps rhythm); it is additive and march form consisting of 8 strains (16 bars in length)
succession of pitches going in the same direction; the name is given to the first note in the scale
chord changes
Standard Changes in 12 bar form
bars 1-4: accompanied by I chord
bars 5-8: 1st half are IV chord, 2nd half I chord
bars 9-12: 1st half are V chord, 2nd half I chord
Standard Changes in 12 bar form
bars 1-4: accompanies by I
bars 5-8: IV and I
bars 9-12: V and I
Urban blues
big band, larger forces
stop time technique
common in jazz, rhythm section stops playing while some are solo-ing for a bar or 2. Structure continues normally.
Down the Dirt Road Blues
Charlie Patton, delta blues
Fine and Mellow
Billy Holiday singing, Ben Webster and Lester Young on tenor sax, Jerry Mulligan on baritone sax, Roy Eldridge on trumpet, Coleman Hawkins on tenor sax
Lester Young
tenor sax player – influence on modern tenor sax because his style was revolutionary; godfather of tenor sax
Joe Williams
Going to Chicago, 1985 deemed the best male jazz singer ever; sang with Lambert, Hendricks and Loss – leading vocal group

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In Sawmill Blues he uses his voice improvisationally to convey his message

Ben Webster
tenor sax
consists of music that expands over 8 bars (32 beats) and then is repeated
3rd group of 8 bars; the “B”
the blues
structural consideration – the most common element is a 12 bar structure (shorter than song form allowing for more choruses (improvisations are shorter as well), but much more predictable)
modal jazz
based on modes (scales); usually there is one chord attached to a particular scale – usually only one scale and therefore one chord; it is static
Most jazz improvisation based on chord changes (or changes) – but Modal jazz in the exception
78 RPM
only last 3 minutes 15/20 seconds
Jazz Brass
trumpet/cornet, trombone
Jazz woodwinds
clarinet, soprano/alto/tenor/baritone sax
Jazz rhythm
piano, guitar/banjo, string bass/tuba, drums
She’s Gotta Go – Ernie Andrews
1958, influenced by rock n roll; stop time; not really a serious blues but rather the dichotomy between the irnoy of blues being associated with heavier things but this song was funny.
Good Rocking Tonigh – Whitney Harris
the top race recording hit on the charts; connections between blues and rock n roll
The connection between blues and jazz
rock n roll got its inspiration from R & B; R originally known as race recordings with a very targeted audience
Jimmy Rushing
5 by 5 singer
Coleman Hawkins
tenor sax; old style; deleted the head and improvised the changes in the “Body and Soul”
John Philip Sousa
march king 136 marches
New Orleans cultural influences
West African (slavery), European, and ports bringing culture (Caribbean)
New Orleans environment
tumultuous / tragic environment
division of New Orleans
uptown: African Americans playing music by improvisation

downtown: whites and creoles playing classical more formal music, functionality

2 kinds of music in the 1890’s
RAGTIME: African American musicians in the midwest were the original, N.O. jazz took and improvised more

DELTA BLUES – not 12 bar structure

Jim Crow Laws
1894 racial segregation code: creoles were told to move uptown. This meant that blacks started learning how to read music creoles and creoles started learning how to improvise. Very important component to jazz in NO
Jim Crow Laws
Plessy vs. Fergusson; separate but equal
2 sections of New Orleans: white and black Storyville
this 21 block area had 1500-2100 registered prostitutes. Brothels hires musicians to play – both black and white. Therefore, blacks got a head start in Storyville
US Navy put pressure on it, and STORYVILLE CLOSED. Musicians headed North because there were no gigs in NO

Also, the Original Dixieland Jass Band – ODJB was the first jazz recording EVER.

first jazz recording in 1917;

“The Livery Stable Blues” – popularity is due to novelty, representative of the brothels of Storyville

2 sections of NO Dixieland style
1. rhythm: piano, tuba, drums, banjo
2. front line: cornet (very important usually carried the lead), trombone, clarinet
Johnson and Ramble
brass band style
Bessie Smith
classic Blues, empress of the blues
Ma Rainy
mother of the blues
New Orleans style
flat four; cornet plays melody, clarinet plays higher faster, trombone plays lower; stop time; breaks; march/blues/song forms
Jellyroll Morton
creole piano player, classical music training but also excellent improviser; led a group called the Red Hot Peppers; first jazz musician to write down his jazz compositions
Heebie Jebies
Armstrong; first recording of scat
March form
Charlie Patton
father of the Delta Blues
Buddy Bolden
the first jazz musician, played a loud cornet
Joe Oliver
cornet, Creole Jazz Band; first NO group to do a lot of recording and the first known recording of Armstrong’s
Buddy Bolden
the first jazz musician, played a loud cornet
Sydney Bechet
Soprano sax player; fast vibrato; New Orleans Style
Cake Walking Babies from Home
Red Onion Jazz Babies; Armstrong on cornet, Sydney Bechet on soprano sax, Charlie Irvis on trombone,
Black Bottom Stomp
Jellyroll Morton and the Red Hot Peppers; Jellyroll piano, George Mitchel trumpet, Omer Simeon clarinet,
Dippermouth Blues
King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band; king olver cornet, Armstrong cornet, Sydney Bechet soprano sax, Johnny Dodds clarinet
country blues
the original source of all blues; developed in 1890’s as a fusion of British style-ballads and work songs
Great Migration
peaked twice: 1910-1930 and 1940-1960; describes the movement of black from South to North and from the country to cities; 3 million blacks; incentives to leave: KKK, Woodrow Wilson, jobs in the North, crop destruction 1915-1916, and after the war job.
Memphis Blues
WC Handy made blues popular in 1912 with this song
Crazy Blues
first blues recording by Mamie Smith and Okeh Phonograph Co.
Good Rocking Tonight
top race recording hit on the charts; W. Harris; connection between blues and rock n roll
The Livery Stable Blues
first jazz recording in 1917; popularity due to novelty
stop time
Rhythm section stops and solo continues. No interruption of form
B section of Song Form. Provides contrast in texture, harmony.
Standard Blues changes
Shout Chorus
Typical of New Orleans jazz. Everyone improvises together
Flat Four
Even weight to all four beats. Common in New Orleans style
Collective Improvisation
Typical of New Orleans style. All improvise together.
Front Line
Cornet or Trumpet, Clarinet, Trombone, (sometimes soprano Sax)
Harlem Renaissance
Literary and Artistic development of African Americans, centered in Harlem. Matter of much pride for blacks in the 1920’s. Established numerous writers, eg. Langston Hughes. Jazz was part of this for many.
22 block section of New Orleans devoted to bars and prostitution, that provided regular employment for many jazz musicians until 1917. It’s closure meant jazz had to spread northward to Chicago, Kansas City, New York city, and numerous cities in California
Roy Eldridge
high range trumpet
Jerry Mulligan
baritone sax
Ben Webster
tenor sax
Sidney Bechet
Clarinet and Soprano Sax
Good Rockin’ Tonight
top race recording on the charts; R&B; Winona Harris
typical of Sydney Bichet
fast vibrato
Jellyroll Morton
piano player; Creole, first jazz musician to write down his jazz compositions
first jazz musician to write down his compositions
Jellyroll Morton, creole piano player
the accentuation of rhythms that ordinarily go un-accentuated
linear succession of pitches that we hear as a coherent unit
the process of changing from one key to another
emotional effects of a piece
W.E.B. Du Bois
claimed that good will and productivity (Booker T Washington) would never prevail in the face of legalized segregation. Viewed segregation as fundamentally unjust and therefore unacceptable in a democratic society. wrote The Souls of Black Folks
Minstrel Shows
white entertainers satirically impersonated African Americans joking, dancing, singing, and playing music. Gave blacks their central route into show business
1890’s-1930’s; a step up from the minstrelsy because it didn’t have a built-in racial theme and was a more neutral performing tone; Bert Williams
Irving Berlin
important songwriter; wanted to write a ragtime opera; produced many popular and familiar songs that have become American standards “blues skies,” “God Bless America,” and “White Christmas”

wrote for a lot of Broadway and Hollywood musicals

before WWI; after WWI it was AABA
Livery Stable Blues
first jazz recording in 1917 by ODJB
Jellyroll Morton
first Jazz musician to write down his jazz compositions; piano player; Creole
Clarence Williams
New Orleans Dixieland
Mamie Smith
“Crazy Blues” was the first record by a jazz woman in 1920; first lady of the blues