Paul Whitema
Viola player; “Symphonic Jazz” – blend of jazz and classical;

“king of jazz”

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huge success. introduced most people to jazz

“Symphonic Jazz”
blend of jazz and classical; it was to be performed not for dancing but for respectful and attentive listening
Austin High School Gang
influenced by a white group called the New Orleans Rhythm Kings; from Chicago; they created the Chicago style jazz
Chicago Style Jazz
New Orleans-inspired music of white jazz musicians in the 1920’s
Bix Beiderbecke
cornet player (known as Armstrong’s white counterpart); influenced by ODJB
Frankie Trumbauer
c-melody sax
Roseland Ballroom
despite race difference, musicians admired one another and the bands often faced off in good natured competition; Henderson played there often
Fletcher Henderson was inspired by
New Orleans – and therefore started incorporating swing and big band jazz – BIG BAND SWING. first to develop a swinging large ensemble
the Cotton Club
high class venue featuring black entertainment strictly for white customers; had an African jungle theme – closely associated with Duke Ellington featuring throbbing tom-tom, minor keys, chromatic harmony, and growling trumpets
jungle style
Duke Ellington and the Cotton Club
East Coast Ragtime
pianists influenced by African ring shout which made their music emphasize “swing feel” – accented upbeats, legato phrasing etc.
Harlem Stride
virtuosic swinging form of east coast ragtim in the 1920’s;

stride is more spontaneous and improvisational, intended for live performance

Harlem Stride players
James P Johnson (father of the stride, Carolina shout)
Willie the Lion Smith
Fats Waller
Earl Hines (trumpet style piano)
James P Johnson
harlem stride piano, father of stride, Carolina Shout – standard test piece
Carolina Shout
standard test piece, James P Johnson
difference between ragtime and harlem stride
in harlem stride, the right hand improvises
Fats Waller
first jazz musician to use the organ

in the 1920’s and 1930’s he was the most important keyboardist

Handful of Keys
Fats Waller; replaced the Carolina Shout as a test piece
boogie woogie
descended from the country blues (Texas and Louisiana)

left hand has a repeating ostinato pattern
improv in the right hand
driving swing feel

hands of boogie woogie
left = ostinato melody
right = improv rhythm
stride developed out of
Meade Lux Lewis
boogie woogie piano
boogie woogie
descended from country blues
Jimmy Yancey and Meade Lux Lewis
effect the Depression had on jazz
at first it was tough when clubs closed and the jukebox
the celebratory music of New Orleans was not fit for the harsh times – so NO style faltered
big bands like Ellington, Henderson, and Whiteman faired well with the bigbands
Savoy Ballroom
Lindy Hop jitterbug dance 1927
Lester Young and Erskine Hawkins played there
Jazz at the Philharmonic
consistently staging perofrmances by leading black musicians, it became the most influential of the jam-session concerts
Basie Style
comping – rhythmic impetus but not dominating the song; a more conservative approach
2000 songs, unique sounds, combining instruments in unorthodox way
Clark Terry
trumpet/flubble horn
Cootie William
trumpet for Ellington
paul gonsales
tenor sax
harry carney
baritone sax
Creole Love Call
first jazz textless recording
Creole Love Call
first jazz textless recording
harry carney
baritone sax
Creole Love Call
first jazz textless recording by Adelade Hall
Johnny Hodges
integral to the Ellington woodwinds, tries to make alto sax sound like a voice
Billy Strayhorn
arranger for Ellington
Jimmy Lunceford
primarily dance band; swing
technique common in swing bands; melodic rhythmic pattern accompanying who’s soloing; easily memorized.

purpose is to back up soloist

Kansas City Style
1. riffs
2. blues – 12 bar form

*improv is key
*head arrangements used in great deal (remember everything without having to write it down)

Benny Moten
piano; Kansas city style
Basie, light and simple
Roseland Ballroom
one of the most important venues for big bands in the 1920’s
Henderson jumpstarted many careers
he jumpstarted Colman Hawkins’ and Paul Gonzales’ career
Paul Gonzales
tenor sax
jazz wasn’t pop music — rock n roll was
in the jazz world, swing wasn’t prominent, bebop was
NewPort Jazz Festival
1956 Ellington and Paul Gonzales (played 27 choruses)
Kay Davis
non-text singer
Benny Goodman
King of Swing; clarinet
Billy Strayhorn
pianist and arranger for Ellington
Gene Krupa
drummer for Goodman
first to make drum sorta the frontline
drums soloing
band boogie, boogie=piano? tried to make it drums too
Artie Shaw
Goodman’s rival clarinetist
Charlie Barnet
tenor sax
Coleman Hawkins
traditional sound, oldschool
tenor sax
lot of vibrato
vertical improv – improvise thru the changes
vertical improv
coleman hawkins; improvise through the changes, don’t worry about the melodies as much
Body and Soul
first AABA tune to learn when trying to improvise
Lester Young
tenor sax
the most influential player because he produced a new sound, not so much vibrato
Roy Eldridge
first real high-range trumpet player
Charlie Christian
electric guitar player
connection between tune and improv (linear improv)

experimented with Gillespie, Monk, and Charlie Park to form BEBOP

house player at Minton’s
likes to deconstruct his music – try to reduce it to its essentials
originality, almost clumsy
him and ellington inspired by impressionism
Art Balkey
drummer, major figure in hard bop