Four Properties of sound
duration, pitch, timbre, intensity
what is jazz
Difficult to define, but most commonly jazz includes improvisation and swing feeling
rhythmic property percieved by listenings has having a combination of steady tempo, a certain kind of off-beat accenting, and a continuous rising and falling of the melodic line.
means making it up as you go along
repitition of sounds
Speed or rate at which the beats pass. 
The way beats are grouped.
Stress on any portion of the measure other than the first part of the first beat…or just the portion least expected to recieve stress.
a notation representing the pitch and duration of a musical sound
the relationship of the notes to a particular scale, giving the feeling that a song must end on a particular note or chord.
3 or more notes played at the same time
chord progressions
harmonies in a particular order with specified durations.
blues form
an aab rhyme scheme over 12 bars.
32 bar song form
4 8-bar sections in an AABA pattern
performance and stylistic aspects of bepop

1. preferred instrumentation for bepop was the small combo instead of the big band

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2. average tempo fast faster in bepop

3. Clarinet was rare in bepop

4. display of instrumental virtuosity was a higher priority.

5. rhythm guitar was rare

6.  less emphasis placed on arrangements

– Stylistic differences between this and swing

1. – melodies were more complex in bepop

2. harmonies were more complex

accompaniment rhythms were more varied

3. – comping rplaced stride style and simple on the beat chording

5. drummers played their timekeeping rhythms primarily on suspended cymbal rather than snare, high hat, or bass drum

6. bepop musicians enjoyed leaving phrases in tunes suspended or unresolved

7.  bepop was a more agitated style

8. bepop improvisation was more complex because it contained, more themes per solo, less similarity among themes, more excursions outside the tune’s original key, a greater scope of rhythmic development

9 surprise was more highly valued in bepop


charlie parker
bepop saxophonist. Could play very fast, sounded hurried.; Modern.; Densely packed solos.;
dizzy gillespie
bepop trumpet player.; Innovative melodic concepts and high register playing.;;
thelonious monk
Was a pianist who compositions whose melodies were unorthodox.; Complex comping chords.; accented in irregular order.; Great logical strucutre.
max roach
The leading bepop drummer.;more spontaneous and exciting.
bud powell
Most imitated of all bepop pianistss
sarah vaughan
best known singer to emerge from the bepop era.; Recorded with dizzy.; Darker style.
birth of the cool
Miles davis organized the band.;
dave brubeck
pianist. led the best known of all cool jazz groups. early 40s 50s. lot in common with classical music.
Lennie Tristano
west coast jazz.; pianist composer and band leader.; just as complex as bepop but differed.; He avoided the phrases of charlie parker and gillespie.; Long phrases and his lines were smoother and less jumpy.;
differences between hard bop and bepop

1 – drummers play with more activity

2. tone colors are darker, weightier and rougher

3 – chord progressions in the comping are less frequently identifical to those of pop tunes

4 – there is somewhat less of the start and stop quality that leaves the listener off balance

5 – there is a hard-driving feeling that pushes relentlessly with an emphasis on consistent swinging

6- piano comping has more variety in rhythmsand chord voicings.

horace silver
leading pianist composer in hard bob.;
miles davis
trumpeter played a pivotal role in history of modern jazz.; Created an original trumpet style.; Distinctive high quality performances.; Textbook for modern players.; Made a significant change during 60’s.  Cool jazz.  Pioneering modal jazz on kind of blue in 1959.  Pioneering jazz rock fusion from modal jazz, rock, and funk with bitches brew, 1969.
clifford brown
Had greatest influence on hard bop.  Mostly widely admired trumpeter since the swing era.  recorded only from 52 to 56. used more deliberate vibrato than either gill or davis.  Smoother.  Improvs more melodic and pretty. preferred to swing rather than surprise with virtuosity and tangents.  joyful.
sonny rollins
Tenor Saxophonist hard bop.  Very original.  Used parkers alto style on tenor sax.   Starts with simple melodies and develops them.  Avoids musical cliches. 
john coltrane
Top ten most important jazz history.  tenor and soprano sax. 
ornette coleman
alto saxophone – one most influential forces in jazz in 60’s 70s.; Free jazz.
bill evans
Most influential pianist behind bud powell.; Style not rough like other avante garde. Very polished, smooth and pretty and explorative.
free jazz

more extensive manipulations of pitch and tone quality – ultra high register playing common, with addition of shrieks squaks, wails gurgles and squeals.; Hoarse tone rough qualities common.

Creation of textures often seemed more important than the development of melodies.; The label was often applied to music of high energy and dense textures which maintained turbulent activity for long periods.;

concept of melody displayed a loosening of bebop melodic and rhythmic practicies had been standard for jazz musicians since the 1940’s.  .

jazz vs. rock

rock and funk typically have:

1 – shorter phrase lengths

2 – less frequent chord changes

3 less complexity of melody and harmony

5 – less use of improv, especially in compings

6 – much more repititions of melodic phrases

7 – more repetition of brief chord progressions

8 – simpler more repetitive drumming patterns

9 – more pronounced repetition of bass figures

10 – more is preset in rock and funk perforamnces than in jazz.  Jazz requires solos and comps to be improvd fresh.

11 – jazz places emphasis on rhythmic flexibility and relaxation, rock stresses intensity and firmness.  Jazz – shuffling or loping, lilting, bouncy, pulls each beat along – but rock sits on each beat.  rock timing is more straught up and down

miles davis and fusion
Drummer tony williams began playing straight, repeating eaighth notes on the ride cymbal, and occcasionally stated each beat by sharply snapping closed the high-hat.  Bassist ron carter sometimes compolemented those drum patterns with simple repeatting bass figures that were not walking.  Begining in 1968, davis also used electric piano and electric bass guitar.  Similar to rock.  In a silent way and bitches brew in 1969.  Electric guitars
david sanborn
Raw style, extremely aggressive.  Alto saxophonist.  Contemporary jazz/soulful.   Played with many rockers. 
mike brecker
Saxophone.  Mixed methods of coltrane, shorter,  and funky styles.  Tenor, most imitated of 70’s 80’s.  Emphasized virtuosity  Hot funky.  Intensity that never let up, filled every space with notes.
herbie hancock
pianist.  Leader of fusion bands.  Played with davis.  Most sought after.  recalls styles of hard bop. 
chick corea
smooth jazz