1 voice and 1 melody
Multiple voices all playing the same thing
multiple melodies/voices
primary melody w/ accompaniment
produced by membrane tightened on instrument
struck directly or indirectly
strings stretched over a resonating body w/ or w/o a neck
sound produced with air moving through instrument like a clarinet
the characteristic sounds of a particular place, both human and non human
time=relation between sounds; the duration of sonic events in time
pattern of strong and weak counts/beats
collection of various sounds/pitches

the way rhythm, harmony and melody work together

  • Monophonic
  • Heterophonic
  • Homophonic
  • Polyphonic

tone color
ex: shrill, tinkley, nasal, piercing


  • National Music of Korea


Korean Western Music

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  • aristocratic music limited audience involvement (Korea)

kaya gum

-Korean 12 string zither

-Genre: Court music and Sanjo

-Plucked with Bamboo bow




  • Korean Fiddle
  • genre: Sanjo 
  • played upright
  • [image]




  • Korean Drum
  • Genre: Pansori, salmunori, court
  • two heads
  • [image]




  • Korean Drum
  • Barrel shaped/two headed
  • [image]



  • Korean Folk Music
  • includes drumming, dancing, and singing
  • Instruments: Puk (drums)



    • Korean Aristocratic and virtuosic Music
    • Instruments: String wind + Changgo
    • solo instrumental music
    • fast/slow



    • Korean court music
    • performed in court hall or town square
    • voice + drum


    • Korean music in category of Nongak
    • Celebrations and agricultural
    • resistance music: banned by Japanese empire
    • Drums and gongs
    • rhythmic



    • Korean Drum and Gong group
    • Pungmul is rooted in the dure (collective labor) farmingculture
    • tradition that includesdrumming,dancing, andsinging. Most performances are outside, with tens of players, all in constant motion.


    people migrating from mainland china–music goes with the people


    • Traditional Genre of Chinese music
    • Uses all instruments
    • Folk Music (of people)




    • Chinese Vertical fiddle
    • Played with a bow
    • Chordaphone
    • [image]




    • Chinese String instrument
    • plucked
    • lute family (round body w/ long neck)
    • [image]




    • Chinese Bamboo flute
    • Played transverse (side)
    • [image]




    • Chinese zither- boxed body w/ bridge
    • plucked
    • Flat
    • [image]


    Chinese Folk Orchestra


    • Western Instruments
    • Popular/traditional combination
    • conductor


    Erich Hornbostel

    an Austrian ethnomusicologist and scholar of music. He is remembered for his pioneering work in the field of ethnomusicology, and for the Sachs-Hornbostel system of musical instrument classification which he co-authored with Curt Sachs.

    Curt Sachs

    was a German musicologist. He was one of the founders of modern organology (the study of musical instruments), and is probably best remembered today for co-authoring the Sachs-Hornbostel scheme of musical instrument classification with Erich von Hornbostel.


     is the science of musical instruments and their classification [1]. It embraces study of instruments’ history, instruments used in different cultures, technical aspects of how instruments produce sound, and musical instrument classification.


    Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes.




    denotes the period in Japanese history during the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor(from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912). During this time, Japan began its modernization and rose to world power status. Meiji means ‘Enlightened Rule’.



    the former name of the Japanese capitalTokyo, and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868


    division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868 and is the premodern era. The period marks the governance of the Edo or Tokugawa shogunate, which was officially established in 1603 by the first Edo shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period ended with the Meiji Restoration,


    • are traditional, female Japanese entertainers whose skills include performing various Japanese arts such as classical music and dance.
    • Known for playing SHAMISEN

    Shakuhachi (extra credit- Bucket on head)


    •  Japanese end-blown flute
    • Vertical
    • Spirtuality and mediatation
    • [image]




    • Japanese zither
    • They have 13 strings
    • pluck the strings
    • very similar to guzheng (chinese)
    • [image]




    • Japanese lute
    • three-stringed musical instrument played with a plectrum (guitar pick on steroids)
    • [image]




    • Japanese Genre: orchestra music, traditional
    • Ancient for the court
    • Advanced dance accompanies
    • Instruments:  Variety-> percussion, flutes




    • the word is often used to refer to any of the various Japanese drums  and to the relatively recent art-form of ensemble taiko drumming




    • Most common Japanese Music form (orgasm)
    • rhythmic changes rather than melodic
    • jo= slow intro
    • ha= breaking apart->faster
    • kyu= rushing til the end with tempo slow to the end



      The term falsetto is most often used in the context of singing to refer to a type of vocal phonation that enables the singer to sing notes beyond the vocal range of the normal or modal voice


      primarily denoting a vocal slide between two pitches and its emulation by instruments such as the violin, and is sometimes used [1] interchangeably with anticipation

      **Describes Native American Vocals

      Characteristics  of Sioux War Dance


      • Voice Quality: shrill, high pitched, piercing
      • Instruments: drums and rattles
      • Vocal technique: portamento (sliding pitches)
      • Singers: mixture of solo and group singing
      • Text: vocables (meaningless syllables)


      Zuni Lullaby

      • Text: lyrics/words
      • Singing: solo singer, voice dominates
      • melodic range: only two pitches
      • accompaniment: NONE
      • Meter:  No meter/free meter (expected with solo singing
      • Structure: repetition w/ slight variations

      Iroquois Quiver Dance

      • Relaxed
      • Pulsation of voice at ends of phrases

      Types of Navajo music

      • Always vocal 
      • Most instruments are used
      • Carlos Nequi

      Black America

      the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession. Music sung in this style is referred to as melismatic, as opposed tosyllabic, where each syllable of text is matched to a single note.

      lining out

      • a form of a cappella hymn-singing or hymnody in which a leader, often called the clerk or precentor, gives each line of a hymn tune as it is to be sung, usually in a chanted form giving or suggesting the tune.
      • It can be considered a form of call and response.
      • Amazing Grace example

      Common Characteristics of African American Music

      • Movement: bodies sway freely and dance 
      • Social organization:  call and response is very typical from leader => lining out
      • Timbre:  alternates between buttery smooth and raspy coarse
      • Pitch: Variable around the 3rd, 5th, and 7th degrees of scale.  The tune is playful

      work song

      • a piece of music closely connected to a specific form of work, either sung while conducting a task
      • Paces the work and rhythms coordinate the movements of the workers

      the blues

      • musical form and a music genre created within the AfricanAmerican community from spiritualswork songsfield hollersshouts and chants, and rhymed simple narrativeballads
      •  characterized by the use of specific chord progressions — the twelve-bar blues chord progressions being the most frequently encountered — and the blue note that for expressive purposes are sung or played flattened or gradually bent in relation to the pitch of the major scale.

      lyrics of blues

      The lyrics of early traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times; it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars.

      Blues Scale

      At its most basic, a single version of this “blues scale” is commonly used over all changes (or chords) in a twelve bar blues progression.[6] Likewise, in contemporary jazz theory, its use is commonly based upon the key rather than the individual chord.[2]


      includes a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected in that they deviate from the strict succession of regularly spaced strong and weak beats in a meter

      downhome blues

      • refers to all the acoustic, mainly guitar-driven forms of the blues (AKA country blues).
      • Country blues were constructed from “a much more heterogeneous, fluid musical field” participated in by black and some white people including ragtime, early jazz, religious song,


      Subject of most blues music.  


      • Ewe people, an ethnic group in Ghana, Benin and Togo
      • Ewe music is the music of the Ewe people of West Africa. Instrumentation is primarily percussive andrhythmically the music features great metricalcomplexity. Its highest form is in dance music including a drum orchestra, but there are also work, play, and other songs


      • Zimbabwe , and southern Mozambique 
      • There are several different types of traditional Shona music including mbira, singing, hoshoand drumming. Very often, this music will be accompanied by dancing, and participation by the audience. In Shona music, there is little distinction between the performer and the audience, both are often actively involved in the music-making, and both are important in the religious ceremonies where Shona Music is often heard.


      • Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of the culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviours that are appropriate or necessary in that culture


      • a West African poet, praise singer, and wandering musician, considered a repository of oral tradition.
      • Although they are popularly known as ‘praise singers’, griots may also use their vocal expertise for gossip, satire, or political comment.
      • Griots today live in many parts of West Africa, includingMali, the Gambia, Guinea, Western Sahara andSenegal,



      • Agbekor is a style of dance by the West Africanpeoples of Ewe and Foh
      • It is characterized by multiple percussioninstruments that engage in highly polyrhythmicinteractions
      • Slow, Bells, Call and Response
      • Today it is used for cultural presentations, but in the past it was an actual war dance, and the oath in question was an oath taken by the ancestors before going into battle.
      • The lead drummer ‘calls’ the dancers to perform a specific movement, preceded and followed by “the call to turn.”




      • Libation is also commonly recognized as the break within the famous performance of Agbekor, a ritual dance performed in some West African cultures.


      drum strokes
      call and response

      • In Sub-Saharan Africancultures, call and response is a pervasive pattern ofdemocratic participation—in public gatherings in the discussion of civic affairs, in religious rituals, as well as in vocal and instrumental musical expression


      • a motif or phrasewhich is persistently repeated in the same musical voice. An ostinato is always a succession of equal sounds. Each note always has the same weight in an ostinato. The repeating idea may be a rhythmic pattern, part of a tune, or a complete melody


      • 21-string harp-lute used extensively by peoples inWest Africa (GRIOT Families)
      • the player uses only the thumb and index finger of both hands to pluck the strings in polyrhythmic patterns 





      •  is amusical instrument consisting of a wooden board to which staggered metal keys have been attached.
      • The Mbira is usually classified as part of thelamellaphone family. It is also part of the idiophonesfamily of musical instruments. In some places it is also known as a sanza.
      • In Shona music, thembira dzavadzimu(“voice of the ancestors“, national instrument of Zimbabwe[1]



      • a long thin plate that is fixed only at one end) is any of a family of musical instruments.
      • A large number of lamellophones originate in Africa, where they are known under different names includingmbirasanzakisanjilikembekalimba, andkongoma.


      • Surakarta (colloquially Solo) is an Indonesian city of more than 600,000 people located in Central Java.


      • The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian:Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY), is the smallestprovince of Indonesia (excluding Jakarta). It is located on the island of Java
      • The city of Yogyakarta is the capital of the province (located in south-central Java)



      • Agamelanis a musical ensemble fromIndonesia, typically from the islands of Bali or Java, 
      • featuring a variety of instruments such asmetallophones, xylophones, drums and gongs;bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings. Vocalistsmay also be included .
      • A gamelan is a set of instruments as a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together — instruments from different gamelan are generally not interchangeable.



      • The bonang is a musical instrument used in theJavanese gamelan
      •  It is a collection of small gongs (sometimes called “kettles” or “pots”) placed horizontally onto strings in a wooden frame (rancak), either one or two rows wide.
      • They are typically hit with padded sticks (tabuh).
      • [image]


      • metallophone is any musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound, usually with a mallet
      • There are several different types used in Balineseand Javanese gamelan ensembles, including the gender,gangsa and saron.
      • [image]


      • he pathet (Javanese spelling; also patet) is an organizing concept in gamelan music
      • a pathet indicates which notes are stressed in the melody, especially at the end of phrases (seleh), as well as determines which elaborations (cengkok andsekaran) are appropriate
      •  In many cases, however, pieces are seen as in a mixture of pathets
      • In Javanese music there are traditionally six pathet


      • Irama is a concept used in Javanese gamelan music, which relates to how much space there is between notes. 
      • One way to think of irama is to use the most consistently struck instrument in the gamelan, the saron panerus
      • There are five irama (varies between 1-16 Saron panerus beats per note)


      • The balungan (Javanese: skeleton, frame) is sometimes called the “core melody” of a Javanese gamelan composition.
      • This corresponds to the view that gamelan music is heterophonic: the balungan is then the melody which is being elaborated.

      loud ; soft playing styles

      Outdoor= Loud, no voices, gongs/pots only


      Indoor= inside, voices, strings

      wayang kulit

      •  shadow puppets prevalent inJava and Bali in Indonesia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesianwayang.
      • Performances of shadow puppet theater are accompanied by gamelan in Java,


      • The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India, the other being theMahabharata.[1] It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.
      • Kakawin Ramayana is an old Javanese rendering;
      • The Javanese Ramayana differs markedly from the original Hindu prototype.
      • [image]


      • A major text of Hinduism and a cornerstone of Hindu mythology, it is of immense importance to the culture of the Indian subcontinent. Its consideration of human goals (dharma or duty, artha or purpose, kama, pleasure or desire and moksha or liberation) is part of a long-standing tradition which seeks to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the “Self”) and the workings of karma.
      • Java has their own version called the Kakawin Bharatayuddha from Java.

      gong kebyar


      • a modern style or genreof Balinesegamelan music
      • Kebyar means “the process of flowering”, and refers to the explosive changes intempo anddynamicscharacteristic of the style.
      •  It is the most popular form of gamelan in Bali, and its best known musical export
      • Gong kebyar music is based on a five-tonescale calledpelog selisir


      gamelan performance context


      • In Indonesia, gamelan usually accompanies dancewayang puppet performances, or rituals or ceremonies. Typically players in the gamelan will be familiar with dance moves and poetry, while dancers are able to play in the ensemble
      • In Bali, almost all religious rituals include gamelan performance. Gamelan is also used in the ceremonies of the Catholic church in Indonesia.[
      • Gamelan is frequently played on the radio
      • In the court tradition of central Java, gamelan is often played in the pendopo, an open pavilion with a cavernous, double-pitched roof, no side walls, and a hard marble or tile floor.



      • seven note scale “heptatonic”


      • pentotonic scale
      • sometimes pitches line up between scales

      Gamelan drum that controls tempo
      the term used in;Indian classical music;for the rhythmic pattern of any composition and for the entire subject of;rhythm, roughly corresponding to;metre;in Western music, though closer conceptual equivalents are to be found in other Asian classical systems such as the notion of;usul;in the theory of Ottoman/Turkish music.