Carnatic music
 a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent.  In contrast to Hindustani music, the main emphasis in Carnatic music is on vocal music; most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed ingayaki (singing) style.
the Hindustani or erstwhile North Indian style of Indian classical music.   The central notions in both these systems is that of a melodic mode or raga, sung to a rhythmic cycle or tala.  The performance is set to a melodic pattern called a raga (also spelled as raag) characterized in part by specific ascent (Aroha) and descent (Avaroha) sequences, which may not be identical. Other characteristics include King (Vadi) and Queen (Samavadi) notes and characteristic phrases (Pakad)
refers to melodic modes used in Indian classical music.[1] It is a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is made. In the Indian musical tradition, ragas are associated with different times of the day, or with seasons. Indian classical music is always set in a raga. Non-classical music such as popular Indian film songs or ghazals sometimes use ragas in their compositions.
the term used in Indian classical music for the rhythmic pattern of any composition and for the entire subject of rhythm, roughly corresponding to metre in Western music, though closer conceptual equivalents are to be found in other Asian classical systems such as the notion of usul in the theory of Ottoman/Turkish music.  A tala is a rhythmic cycle of beats with an ebb and flow of various types of intonations resounded on a percussive instrument. Each such pattern has its own name.
is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout most or all of a piece. The word drone is also used to refer to any part of a musical instrument that is just used to produce such an effect.  A drone effect can be achieved through a sustained sound or through repetition of a note

 is a percussion instrument from India, especially South India. It is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in a Carnatic music ensemble


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is a long necked plucked lute, a stringed instrument found in different versions in different places. The tanpura in its bodily shape somewhat resembles the sitar, but it has no frets, as only the open strings are played as a harmonic accompaniment to the other musicians. It has four or five (rarely, six) wire strings, which are plucked one after another in a regular pattern to create a harmonic resonance on the basic note (bourdon or drone function).



Shruti box

a small wooden instrument that traditionally works on a system of bellows. It is similar to a harmonium and is used to provide a drone in a practice session or concert ofIndian classical music. It is used as an accompaniment to other instruments and notably the flute. Use of the shruti box has widened with the cross-cultural influences of world music andnew age music to provide a drone for many other instruments as well as vocalists.



is a grouping of people who share common history, culture, language and ethnic origin, often possessing or seeking its own government.[1] The development and conceptualization of a nation is closely related to the development of modern industrial states and nationalist movements in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,[2] although nationalists would trace nations into the past along uninterrupted lines of historical narrative.

a state that self-identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a country as a sovereign territorial unit.[1] The state is a political andgeopolitical entity; the nation is a cultural and/or ethnic entity. The term “nation-state” implies that the two geographically coincide, and this distinguishes the nation state from the other types of state, which historically preceded it.


Difference between Nation and Nation-State
A nation refers to a single ethnic community of people who share a common identity and usually a common origin, while a nation state may be multi-cultural and is defined as a group of people united in the political and legal structure of the State.
Imagined Communities
a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is a community socially constructed, which is to say imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group.
Invented Traditions
Hobsbawm distinguished between three types of invented traditions which each have a distinctive function: a) those establishing or symbolising social cohesion and collective identities, b) those establishing or legitimatising institutions and social hierarchies, and c) those socialising people into particular social contexts; the first type has been most commonly referred to and often taken to imply the two other functions as well (Hobsbawm 1983: 9).
Benedict Anderson
best known for his celebrated book Imagined Communities. Anderson argues that the main causes of nationalism and the creation of an imagined community are the reduction of privileged access to particular script languages (e.g. Latin), the movement to abolish the ideas of divine rule and monarchy, as well as the emergence of the printing press under a system of capitalism (or, as Anderson calls it, ‘print-capitalism’).
Eric Hobsbawm
a British Marxist historian and author.  He argues that many traditions are invented by national elites to justify the existence and importance of their respective nation states (Invented Traditions)
Folk Music
a term for musical folklore which originated in the 19th century. It has been defined in several ways; as music transmitted by word of mouth, music of the lower classes, music with no known composer. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles.

a musical tradition of the Ashkenazic Jews of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim, the genre consists largely of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. Although the genre has its origins in Eastern Europe, the particular form now known as klezmer developed in theUnited States in the milieu of Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants who arrived between 1880 and 1924.


Klezmer is easily identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping. This is not a coincidence;

Klezmer Ensemble

The following instruments are sought: violin, viola, cello, bass, clarinet, flute, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, tuba, percussion (drum set, xylophone), piano, and accordion, although others will also be considered.


a High German language of Ashkenazi Jewish origin, spoken throughout the world. It developed as a fusion of German dialects with Hebrew, Aramaic, Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages

is Poland’s most southern region, sometimes referred to as the “Polish highlands”. The Podhale is located in the foothills of the;Tatra range;of the;Carpathian mountains, and is characterized by a rich tradition of;folklore;that is much;romanticized;in the Polish;patriotic;imagination


constitute a;mountain range;which forms a natural border betweenSlovakia;and;Poland. They occupy an area of 750;km;, the major part (600;km;) of which lies in Slovakia.

a group of;indigenous people;found along southernPoland, northern;Slovakia, and in the region of;Cieszyn Silesia;in the;Czech Republic. There is also a significant Goral diaspora in the area ofBukovina;in what is today;Western Ukraine;and northern;Romania, as well as;Chicago, the seat of the;Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America.
a class of;musical instrument,;aerophones;using enclosed;reeds;fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. Though the Scottish;Great Highland Bagpipe;and Irish;uilleann pipes;have the greatest international visibility, bagpipes of many different types come from different regions throughout Europe, Northern Africa, the Persian Gulf, and the Caucasus.

Polish folk musical instrument of the group;chordofon;w;string;. Characteristic of;Podhale;, occurred to the;nineteenth century;. Name;zl;bcoki;refers to;gouging;instrument with a single block of wood, while others derive it from the;lob;, which cradles




A practice common in;Romantic;compositions;of taking part of the;duration;from one;note;and giving it to another. It involves the;performer;tastefully stretching, slowing, or hurrying the;tempo;as she/he sees fit, thus imparting flexibility and emotion to the;performance.;Rubato is usually intuitively and naturally used by good musicians. ;some classical performers frequently use rubato for emotional expressiveness in all kinds of works, while maintaining good taste in style.

a;motif;or;phrase;which is persistently;repeated;in the same musical voice. An ostinato is always a succession of equal sounds. Each note always has the same weight in an ostinato. The repeating idea may be a rhythmic pattern, part of a tune, or a complete melody. ;
a graphic;sound of music;, defining the level and duration. (top notes)
zb;jnicki dance
an energetic men’s dance from the Skalne Podhale area (the rocky foothills of the Tatra Mountains and the Tatras themselves, located in southern Poland, bordering on Slovakia and Moravia). The name is an adjective created from the noun zbójnik – a brigand or a robber; Today, it is usually done for exibition, either for the enjoyment of the local people, or (mainly) for visitors and tourists.  in comparison to the góralski dance most of performers find the zbójnicki easier to learn because of its more obvious rhythm, and if the performer is in good physical condition, its steps are not as difficult to master.
góralski dance

Góralski means [dance] of the mountaineers. It could signify a dance of any mountaineer people in Poland. In Poland, however, góralski usually means the dance of the mountaineers from Podhale, as this region has the richest folk art and the most intricate dances, and therefore is the best known.  

Góralski is the couple dance of the Górale.


Partners however do not dance with each other, but around each other, and touch only during, the turning step, the zwyrt.

the world’s longest;continental;mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of;South America
a;Native American;language family;spoken primarily in the;Andes;of;South America, derived from an original common ancestor language, Proto-Quechua. It is the most widely spoken language family of the;indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 6 to 8 million speakers (estimates vary widely).

;province in;Ecuador. The capital is;Ibarra. The people speak Spanish and Imbabura;Quechua language.

Imbabura Volcano;is located in the province


The;pan flute;or;pan pipe;(also known as;panflute;or;panpipes) is an ancient;musical instrument;based on the principle of the;Closed tube, consisting usually of five or more pipes of gradually increasing length (and, at times, girth). The pan flute has long been popular as a;folk instrument, and is considered the first;mouth organ, ancestor of both the;pipe organ;and the;harmonica




The;Siku;(Quechua:;antara,;Aymara:;siku, also “Sicu,” “Sicus,” “Zampolla” or;Spanish;zampo;a), is a traditional Andean;panpipe. This instrument is the main instrument used in a musical genre known as the Sikuri. It is traditionally found all across the Andes but is more typically associated with music from the;Kollasuyo, or;Aymara;speaking regions around Lake;Titicaca.




;the traditional;flute;of the;Andes. Usually made of;bamboo, it has 6 finger holes and one thumb hole and is open on both ends. To produce;sound, the player closes the top end of the pipe with the flesh between his chin and lower lip, and blows a stream of air downward, along the axis of the pipe, over an elliptical notch cut into the end.;Quena is mostly used in traditional;Andean music




a small;South American;stringed instrument;of the;lute;family, about 66;cm;long, traditionally made with the shell of the back of an;armadillo. Many contemporary charangos are now made with different types of wood. It typically has 10 strings in five;courses;of 2 strings each, although other variations exist.

The instrument was invented in the early 18th century in the;Viceroyalty of Peru, a South American entity that was controlled by Spain during the times of the;Spanish colonization of the Americas, specifically in the region of Cerro Rico in the city of Potosi in present day Bolivia.



Nueva cancion
is a movement in;Latin American music;that was developed first in the;Southern Cone;of South America, especially Chile, during the 1950s and 1960s, but also popularized shortly after in;Central America. It combined traditional Latin American;folk musicidioms and some had popular rock music, with progressive and often politicized lyrics. It would gain great popularity throughout;Latin America;and sometimes it’s called a precursor to rock en español.
s an ancient style of music and;circle dance;which is widespread since;incaic;or even;preincaic;epoch on the;Peruvian;andBolivian;highlands. Modern versions of this style still use the;Quechua;or;Aymara;language and the;siku;(ceremonial panpipe). ;Traditionally k’antu is being performed on siku (panpipe) by parallel fifths and octaves in combination with percussion instruments. Usually scale of k’antus is;pentatonic, seldom even like Japanese;In scale[2].
used in;Kallawaya;traditional music;in South America. ;

Sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film:;

  • voices of characters;
  • sounds made by objects in the story;
  • music represented as coming from instruments in the story space ( = source music)

Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film’s world 


Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action: 

  • narrator’s commentary
  • sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect
  • mood music

Non-diegetic;sound;is represented as coming from the a source outside story space.;

The distinction between diegetic or non-diegetic sound depends on our understanding of the conventions of film viewing and listening.; We know of that certain sounds are represented as coming from the story world, while others are; represented as coming from outside the space of the story events.; A play with diegetic and non-diegetic conventions can be used to create ambiguity (horror), or to surprise the audience (comedy).;

Music Score

a hand-written or printed form of;musical notation; like its analogs;books, pamphlets, etc.;the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier times, parchment), although the access to musical notation in recent years includes also presentation on computer screens.

In everyday use, “sheet music” (or simply “music”) can refer to the print publication of commercial music in conjunction with the release of a new film, show, record album, or other special or popular event which involves music.

Mickey Mousing

Mickey Mousing” (synchronized, mirrored, or parallel scoring) is a film technique used to sync the actions on screen with the accompanying music. The term comes from the early and mid-production Walt Disney films, where the music almost completely works to mimic the animated motions of the characters. Mickey Mousing may use music to “reinforce an action by mimicking its;rhythm;exactly


is the quality of a;musical note;or sound or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices or;musical instruments. The physical characteristics of sound that mediate the perception of timbre include spectrum and envelope. Timbre is also known in;psychoacoustics;as;tone quality;or;tone color.

the;native language;of a population located in a country or in a region defined on some other basis, such as a locality. For example,;Navajo;is a local language in the southwest of the United States,;English;is the state language of a number of countries.
with the meaning ?of being true or real? is a likeness or resemblance of the truth, reality or a fact’s probability. It comes from Latin verum meaning truth and similis meaning similar.[1]
A quarter, perhaps a third, of the human race has moved toward a kind of world superculture of skyscrapers, automobiles, airplanes, and intercontinential hotels. The rest of the human race still remains close to subsistence. … The development of the superculture is the result of the knowledge explosion, which led not only to new theories and processes, but to new discoveries, especially of fossil fuels and rich ores.
Transnational Progressivism
a term coined by Hudson Institute Fellow John Fonte in 2001 to describe an ideology that endorses a concept of postnational global citizenship and promotes the authority of international institutions over the sovereignty of individual nation-states

Cultural appropriation in Western music

as a cultural/economic phenomenon is inextricably linked with the invention of sound recording and the development of the internationalrecording industry, but the background to its emergence covers the whole span of modern Western musical history, and what some analysts have deemed the digital revolution. This is particularly evident among indigenous peoples and their musical genres, such as the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia who face many challenges in the face of globalization and the forces propelling cultural appropriation.[1]

 is a genre of Indonesian popular music that is partly derived from Malay, Arabic and Hindustani music. It developed in the 1970s among working class Muslim youth, but beginning in the late 1990s reached a broader following in Indonesia, Malaysia and the southernPhilippines.[1][2]

A dangdut band typically consists of a lead singer, male or female, backed by four to eight musicians. Instruments usually include a tabla,mandolin, guitars, and synthesizers. The term has been expanded from the desert-style music, to embrace other musical styles.[1] Modern dangdut incorporates influences from Middle Eastern pop music, Western ‘rock,’ house music, hip-hop, R&B, and reggae.[1][3]

fusion music
is a music genre which combines two or more genres. For example, rock and roll originally developed as a fusion of blues, gospel and country music. The main characteristics of fusion genres are variations in tempo, rhythm and sometimes the use of long musical “journeys” that can be divided into smaller parts, each with their own dynamics, style and tempo. “Fusion” used alone often refers to jazz fusion.
Characteristics of European Music

European music is largely distinguished from many other non-European and popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 16th century.[2] Western staff notation is used by composers to prescribe to the performer the pitch, speed, meter, individual rhythms and exact execution of a piece of music. This leaves less room for practices, such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, that are frequently heard in non-European art music (compare Indian classical music and Japanese traditional music) and popular music


piano, harpsichord, and organ, electric guitar, Synthesizer

Form of European Music

Whereas the majority of popular styles lend themselves to the song form, classical music can also take on the form of the concerto, symphony, sonata, opera, dance music, suite, étude,symphonic poem, and others.

Classical composers often aspire to imbue their music with a very complex relationship between its affective (emotional) content and the intellectual means by which it is achieved. Many of the most esteemed works of classical music make use of musical development, the process by which a musical idea or motif is repeated in different contexts or in altered form. The sonata form and fugue employ rigorous forms of musical development.

is a recurring musical theme, associated with a particular person, place, or idea. In particular such a theme should be ‘clearly identified so as to retain its identity if modified on subsequent appearances’ whether such modification be in terms of rhythm,harmony, orchestration or accompaniment. It may also be ‘combined with other leitmotifs to suggest a new dramatic condition’ or development
Harps (SA)
In Latin America, harps are widely but sparsely distributed, except in certain regions where the harp traditions are very strong. Such important centers include Mexico, Andes, Colombia,Venezuela, and Paraguay. They are derived from the Baroque harps that were brought from Spain during the colonial period.
The Maghrib prayer, prayed just after sunset, is the fourth of five formal daily prayers (salat) performed by practicing Muslims.

The formal daily prayers of Islam comprise different numbers of units, called rak’at. The Maghrib prayer has three obligatory (fard) rak’at. The first two fard rak’at are prayed aloud, and the third is prayed silently. In Sunni Islam, two further sunnah rak’at following the fard rak’at are highly recommended.

Muslim prayer prayed after sunset. ;It has three parts: ;The first two fard rak’at are prayed aloud, and the third is prayed silently
heterophony is a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line. Such a texture can be regarded as a kind of complex monophony in which there is only one basic melody, but realized at the same time in multiple voices, each of which plays the melody differently, either in a different rhythm or tempo, or with various embellishments and elaborations.
 is a motif or phrase which is persistently repeated in the same musical voice. An ostinato is always a succession of equal sounds. Each note always has the same weight in an ostinato. The repeating idea may be a rhythmic pattern, part of a tune, or a complete melody
the name of a melodic improvisation style that could be metric or non-metric, which usually precedes a composition inArabic, Turkish, Greek, and other Middle Eastern music. The taqsim is usually performed by a solo instrument, yet sometimes the soloist can be backed by a percussionist or an instrumentalist playing a drone on the tonic of the maqam. In vocal music, a similar style is called layali.
Takht ensemble
Made up of traditional Arabic instruments + western instruments
denotes a modal structure that characterizes the art of music of countries in North Africa, the Middle East andCentral Asia. In this area we can distinguish four main musical cultures which all belong to the Maqam family, namely the Kurdish, the Persian, the Arabic and the Turkish. denotes a modal structure that characterizes the art of music of countries in North Africa, the Middle East andCentral Asia. In this area we can distinguish four main musical cultures which all belong to the Maqam family, namely the Kurdish, the Persian, the Arabic and the Turkish.(Mode of Scale)
end of a phrase

concluding statement with motion up and down a scale 

-Type of cadence

inspirational/ectasy sounding music

are musical flourishes that are not necessary to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or “ornament” that line. Many ornaments are performed as “fast notes” around a central note.


Trills, turns and slides

is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin

is a chosen person at the mosque who leads the call (adhan) to Friday service and the five daily prayers (salat) from one of the mosque’s;minarets;(in most modern mosques, electronic;amplification;aids the muezzins).


Caller to prayer

Umm Kulthum
She was an;Egyptian;singer,;songwriter, and;actress. Born in Tamay ez-Zahayra village that belongs to;El Senbellawein, she is known as the Star of the East (kawkab el-sharq). More than three decades after her death, she is still recognized as one of the Arab world’s most famous and distinguished singers of the 20th century
Abu Nasr Farabi
Wrote books on early muslim society and discussed musics therapeutic effects
Avi Cinna
known for contributions to medicine, persian philsopher, shaped society.
Hormoz Farhat
20th Century Persian Scholar, composer, and ethnomusicologist
collection of many old melodic figures–organizes melodies into spaces called dastgah
melody type that consists of 7 basic notes (12 main dastgahs)–Mode
when combined they form radifs (individual sequences)–Melodic sequence
the initial gushe in a dastgah (first melodic sequence within the mode).
contains intervals smaller than the conventional western semitone.  Differs from 12-tone western

zither of Iran, India and various other countries, It is a trapezoid-shaped box often made of walnut or different exotic woods. The original classical santur has 72 strings




Persian lutes played in classical music