multitrack recording
tracks that can be independently accessed
3 phrase process?
recording, overdubbing, and mixing
most important aspect to any recording
keep things simple, stay true to the music
what is a sound wave?
compressions and rarefactions of molecules
range of hearing in humans
20 Hz to 20 kHz
loudness, intensity of energy, height of wave
how often cycle repeats in a given time interval
how many periods/second
speed of sound in air
1130 ft/sec or 344 m/s
wavelength equation
wavelength = velocity/ frequency
adds other frequency, generating harmonics that are not part of original signal
converts energy
purpose of patch bay
allow rerouting of normal signal flow and insertion of additional devices
3 heads on analog
erase, record, and playback
Fletcher Munson
perception of what we hear is changing
anecodic chamber
room with no reflections of any kind, used to test and measure loudspeakers
increase in signal amplitude produced by amplifier
building blocks


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3.Summing Amp

4.Distribution Amp


6.Impedance Amp

7.VCA (Voltage Controlled Amp

summing amp
combines signals to one
distribution amp
opposite of summing
isolate one circuit from another
impedance amp
reactive form of resistance
primary functions of a console
routing and processing of input and output signals
auxiliary sends
provide space for plug-ins
pros of analog
warm, accurate, better sound quality

-infinitely and continuously variable

cons of analog
more work, time consuming, expensive
pros of digital
mobility, cheapter, less work, faster to use
cons of digital
loss of information, less accurate
switching rapidly and repeatedly between the fast forward and rewind switches
2 fundamental kinds of microphones
dynamic and condenser
types of dynamic microphones
moving coil and ribbon
transient response
response time of microphone
microphone selection based on what?
frequency response, accuracy, durability, and rejection of unwanted sound
equally sensitive in all directions
sensitive front and back
sensitive in front
active loudspeaker
has amplifier
passive loudspeaker
no amp
near field monitoring
close to listener, maximizing direct energy
far field monitoring
full range, a lot of power, broad frequency response
2 fundamental loudspeaker designs
bass reflex and sealed-air compression
frequency dividing network
nyguist theorem
sample rate must be twice the highest frequency that we wish to sample
non-lossy compression
minimally reduce data, nothing is lost
lossy compression
store more data, sounds worse
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
-used by synths and sequencers to communicate
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
-time-based code used by machine to stay in sync
purposes of signal processing

1.overcome limitations of equipment

2.recreate ambiance lost to close-miking techniques 3.change timbre

4.create new sounds and ambiances

time compressor takes to react to signal exceeding threshold
how quickly compressor reverts to unity gain
extreme of expansion
extreme of condensing
decrease dynamic range
increase dynamic range
phantom power
polarize the back plate and diaphragm in condenser mic, and to power mic’s internal preamp
proximity effect
change in the frequency response of a directional microphone as the sound source is brought close to the microphone
overall goal for monitoring system
transparent, no added sound at all
loudspeaker frequency response considerations
bandwidth and linearity
ultrasonic signal
SACD uses what form of digital encoding?
DSD (direct stream digital)
shaped noise added to low level signals prior to digital encoding to decrease errors and distortion
Pulse code modulation
successive approximation method or data conversion
word clock
master timing reference pulse that is distributed to devices to prevent ticks, pops, and other distortions
parametric EQ filter controls?
frequency band, gain, and bandwidth
amount of time takes amplitude to drop 60 dB once driving force has been removed
operates at high frequencies to reduce effect of voice sibilance