Franz Schubert


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Early or late romantic?

What did he compose?

What did he pioneer?

What kind of fish did he write about?

Early or late romantic? Early

What did he compose? Symphony, chamber music, sacred, sonata, art song

What did he pioneer? Art song (lied)

What kind of fish did he write about? The Trout


Robert Schumann


What did he injure, and how?

What did he pioneer?

What did he write?

What was his wife?

What did he injure, and how? His hand, playing piano

What did he pioneer? Music criticism

What did he write? The New Journal of Music

What was his wife? Clara Schumann – piano virtuoso who played his compositions

When was the romantic era?
What was emphasized in the romantic era?
individuality and individuality of style
What is the German word for art song(s)?
What appened to the orchestra throughout the romantic era?
It got bigger
What was the most important instrument?
How did brass instruments evolve during this era?
They got valves so they could play more varied parts
What is chromatic harmony?
chords not in the key. They are expressive and dissonant
Who pioneered art songs?
Franz Schubert
Who was the first music critic?
Robert Schumann
What is an etude?
A study piece
What is a nocturne?
A piece that evokes nighttime
What is a prelude?
A solo short piano work
What is a mazurka and a polonaise? 
piece with Polish dance origin
Who wrote Polish dance pieces?
Frederic Chopin
What instrument did Liszt play?
Who was Liszt influenced by, as a pianist?
Violinist Niccolo Paganini
Who invented the symphonic poem (tone poem)?
Franz Liszt
Describe a symphonic poem.
Programmatic, 1 movement, tells a story
Who wrote Symphonie Fantastique, and when?
Hector Berlioz, 1830
Who breathed new life into classical forms?
Johannes Brahms
Who was afraid to write symphonies until he was 40, and why?
Johannes Brahms, because Beethoven was so good
What is Brahms’ music characterized by?
Lyrical warmth and rhythmic complexity/energy
What brought about nationalism?
Response to a national crisis, also Napoleonic Wars
What is folk music?
local music, music of the people
Where was Bedrich Smetana from?
Bohemia (Czechoslovakia);
Where was Tchaicovsky from?
What piece begins and ends with a Russian Hymn?
1812 Overture
What order did they happen in: Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Rossini

Giuseppe Verdi

Giacomo Puccini

Which Italian opera composers emphasized boundaries between recitative and aria and said the orchestra was subordinate to the voice?
Gioachino Rossini
Which Italian opera composer had seamless recitative/aria transitions and made the orchestra as important as the voice?
Giacomo Puccini
Who made the opera’s orchestra so large he had to make a bigger pit?
Richard Wagner
Who called his operas “music dramas?”
Richard Wagner
Who gave his operas an “unending melody?”
Richard Wagner
How important was Wagner’s orchestra?
as important as the voice
How frequent were the modulations in Wagner’s operas?
What is a leitmotif?
Music associated with a certain person/place/thing/idea
What did Wagner use as subject matter for his operas?
mythology and legend
What instruments are in an art song?
Piano and voice