air de cour 

"courtly air"


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secular in France, polyphonic or homophonic
played on voice and lute

theatrical genre of 17th century England featuring a mixture of declaimed poetry, songs, scenery, dance, and instrumental music
tragedie lyrique 

overture with two movments

first slow with dotted rhythms, second fast


talked about politics and made king look good

5 acts 

french overture

type of overture that begins with a slow intro featuring dotted rhythms and moves to a fast imitative section

commonly used in french operas and opera seria of the 17th and 18th century 

between acts of tragedie lyrique, lots of instrument and ensemble, some only instruments
opera seria

serious opera

arisa and recit

exit convention

polot based in classical antiquity

rulers in good light

lots of virtuosity, espeically in da capo aria, ABA



story based on mythology or royalty

more music thatn ballad opera

purcell wrote many 


means prayer hall

n arrator characters and plot

big chorus and orchestra

religous story

watered down opera 


hodge podge

not any others it’s this

bach loved

means to sing

concert spirituel

group of artists played them in public venues

not spiritual or sacred;

trio sonata

three notated parts, but more than three players allowed, instrumental, not hard, much virtuosity


de chiesa

somber, in church, 1st movement slow, others imitative


de camera

secular, series of suites;


grosso-2 parts, small group of soloists and ripierno, larger group


;solo-soloists with ripieno ensemble


ripieno-no soloists, no opposition;

type of work for keyboard that is freely constructed, based on no preexisting material, andtypically features rapid passagework

subject (theme)

exposition (when all voices have stated subject)

free section (episodes and middles entries, which are points of imitation);


piano piece based on preexisting vocal piece


used often in church, chorale preludes;


organized and very structured

3 sometimes 4 movements

fast, slow, fast

if a fourth appeared it was 3rd and a minuet

locked in opera overture;

opera buffa;;

no da capo aria or virtuosity

everyday becomes lead

bass becomes lead

simply melodies

ensemebles become very important

lots of periodic phrase structure;

reform opera

no virtuosity or solo recitative

all about drama

overture plays into action

blurs lines between recit and arias

text based on greek mythology

some guy is important;

opera seria didn’t die though, just less common 

opera with singing and speaking
social songs




glee-based onf olk song

canon-religious or morality lesson 

the concerto madrigal 
type of madrigal which emered in early 17th century, using instruments (bass continuo with or without aditional instruments) independtly of the vocal part or parts
madrigal comedies 

series of polyphonic madrigals loosely connected through plot and characters . The genre enjoyed its heyday in the closing decades of the 16th century.


the slopes of mount parnassus



ballad opera  

type of opera popular in egnland during the 18th ccentury

featuring contemporary songs, including but not limited to ballads, mixed with dialouge 


First, Dafne by Peri


Best, or atleast first realy, Orfeo by Monteverdi


Peri and Caccini argued over having done it first… 

music in convents  

many women were sent to convents because the dowry for a convent was much less than that for marrying a husband


many convents started up, and two thirds of them were writing polyphonic music. 

motets and masses  

grand motet, vocal soloists, chorus, and orchestra


much virtuosity in them


practical, a la zadok the priest. 

ballet de cour  

courtly ballets, which had the monarch as the lead (someone portraying the monarch)


combined song, dance, and instrumental music


dominated in France for first 2/3 of 17th century 


mixture of spoken drama and dance


Lully was major (he was the smart guy who took over Opera in France)




violin (24 violinists of the King, keep your violinist, people just began keeping them)

winds, brass, and percussion

keyboard (Cristofori makes first pianoforte, called gravicembalo col piano e forte))


that which is sounded


instrumental equivalent of cantata 

concerto (just it, not types)
applied to works where a combination of diverse musical forces work together, "in concert"

extended series of dances

same key, switches between major and minor

two fast movements, than a slow, and at the end a lively dance in triple meter 


titles depend on geo location (partida in Germany)! 

variation suite

presents a series of contrasting dances based on one basic thematic idea


in effect, a set of variations grouped as a dance suite 

short pauses in voices that are covered by forward motion in other voices
double (suite)

tacked onto end of dance


connect is theme 

Jean-Phillipe Rameau  

triadic hamony


used & "discovered" inversions 

free genres (keyboard music)

3 types- imitative, non imitative, combination


imatitive, 3 types-ricercar, fugue, canon


non-imitative, 4 types-toccata, canzona, fantastia, prelude 

vocal based (keyboard)
chanson and chorale
dance based (keyboard)

goldberg variations (JS Bach)


still binary


sarabande, allemande, and gavotte


chaconne, passacaglia, folia 

basso ostinato

bass that wouldn’t go away


used in variations;

tierce de picardie;;

picardy third


ended a piece on a major triad that is otherwise minor;

violin family
violin, viola, and cello reach modern day form
head motif
thematic idea(s) repeated throughout a piece
another name for concerto ripeieno
Classical Dates



50 years


and that’s all she wrote 

age of enlightenment

me started believing in knowledge, and using it to help the world


using reason, less mysticism 

Galant and Rococo
Refers to music between 1720 and 1750 that is not quite the full classical style yet

means sensibility in cherman


describes a characteristic aesthetic associated wtih the new style

 music focused on detail, and avoided thick textures and grandiose gestures

homophony in clasical

genuine homophony, a subordinate voice or voices support a single prominent melodic line

focus moved to top line

obbligato accompaniment, secondary voices contribute material essential to a work’s musical fabric;

periodic phrase structure in classical

becomes common in all musical genres


move away from paratactic, and more toward syntactic;

basso continuo in classical;;

basso continuo gone, no figured bass


(except in secco recitative, then some bc happened);

harmonic rhythm in classical

much slower


baroque, harmonies change beat to beat, classical, maybe twice a measure;

balance and proportion in classical
underneath all the rules of classical, there was an underlying current of turublence and unpredictability
people like about sonata?

listeners could easily recongnize the signposts, and could orient themselves within a sonata form movement


predictability, or atleast organization;

Mannheim orchestra

Best orchestra of time, conducted by J. Stamitz


best players, beautiful playing, ingenuity abounded;


Orchestra of Generals;

fantasia of classical

no predictable framework



CPE Bach and JC Bach

sons of Bach


also great composers and conductors;

Alberti Bass
when bass plays repeated figurations on a series of triadic harmonies

unit of music to be repeated in performance immediately after it has been first presented


expanded binary;;
no idea
language of instrumental music
instruments could move you like voices
instrumental forms (classical)

sonata, string quartet, symphony, concerto;


all had 3-4 movements

in 4 mvm form 3rd was a minuet

minuet-ABA minuet proper trio minuet proper, boisterous and adds levity


fast slow fast;

all instrument movements in a good piece relate to it….

based on a dance


lively, usually a finale




A, refrain

BCD, episodes or couplets;

half cadence

a switch to the dominant key


cadence on the dominant;

sturm und drang

usually minor, characterists similar to mannerism


large jumps, synocopations, dynamic contrast;

symphony (classical)

locked in opera oveture for years, but finally coming out


Battista Samartini wrote first independent symphony


Italian overture, fast slow fast


growing in size;

sonata form with varied reprise

used by haydn

;there was a reprise of the exposition, but it was done with embellishments and subtle changes, so the entire thing was rewritten out

dies irae;

used in Haydn’s Symph 103


first two measures sound like opening of dies irae from the plainchant mass for the dead


the down up feature from dies irae is also in the symp 103 

what improvements where made to the piano?(cl)

broader range of dynamics


more readily available 

What made JC Bach’s Op. 5 #2 typical?
light, easy to play, small scale, and easily played on both harpsichord and piano
String Quartet (cl)

trio sonatas still exist


2 violins, a viola, and a violoncello;


four movements standard


instruments in symphonies (cl);;

1760-strings, two oboes, maybe a flute or bassoons, and two horns near end of 1760


1780-trumpets and timpani



turkish music in symphonies
haydn used turkish instruments in his symphony (fast-drum, cymbal, tambourine, and triangle)
difference between concerto then and now? cl
then, more of a colloborative effort instead of the soloist being a separate entity
concerto movements? cl

between acts of opera seria


funny and popular

became opera buffa;

Guerre des Bouffons

War of Buffoons

;Over whether to keep the tragedie lyrique or to change over to the Italian Opera Buffa

Italian won


Le devin du village

French opera writte in Italian style


very very very popular


written by Rousseau;

Piccinnists and Gluckists

another opera fight

;both foreginers

Gluck was more French style, Piccini was more Italian


Gluck won, yay Reform opera;

Sacred Music, cl

simpler, more chordal


kept basso continuo and strict counterpoint;

Kennst du das Land

Song by Zelter

told story, very straightforward and undemanding

common Song;

Carl F. Zelter

began concept of German Lied


was strophic, syllabic, vocal and piano very undemanding, narrow vocal range;

New-England Psalm-Singer
Billings collection of social songs
La serva padrona
started war of the buffoons
clemenza di tito
a opera seria by Mozart with a castrato, written after Reform Opera began
ritornello and its principle

literally small return, musical idea that returns at serveral points over the course of a work, usually after constrasting material


ritornello principle is when the composer constructs large scale forms are successive returns of an opening idea


big in concerto;