What movement did Claude Monet start, and what was his painting called?
Impressionism, Impression: Sunrise
What was the 20th century approach to rhythm?
Syncopation, unpredictable, irregular, complex
What is the 20th century approach to harmony?
Lots of dissonance, non-traditional harmony, atonal
Who wrote Rite of Spring in 1913?
Igor Stravinsky
What -ism does Rite of Spring use, and what does the song depict?
Primitivism, a girl dancing to death to worship the god of spring
Who bridges the Romantic era and the 20th century?
Claude Debussy
Who wrote Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun?
Who was a French contemporary of Debussy that wrote music with greater clarity of form?
Maurice Ravel
What kind of works did Igor Stravinsky write in his early compositional period?
Ballet scores for large orchestras.
Who hired Igor Stravinsky?
Sergei Diaghilev
What are Stravinsky’s three compositional periods?


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Neoclassical – 1920-50, reaction to romanticism and impressionism, focused on simplicity

After 1950 – adopts 12-tone method

What does abstract expressionism depict, and how is it portrayed?
depicts moods, feelings, emotions. Portrayed through dissonance/atonality, timbre variety, shocking and dramatic themes.
How did Schoenberg’s style transform through his career?

early – late romantic, highly chromatic

by 1908 – atonal

after 1920 – 12-tone

Which three composers were the 2nd Viennese school?
Schoenberg, Berg, Webern
Why did Schoenberg move to the US?
Because he was Jewish and WW2
What is the storyline of Schoenberg’s Verklante Nacht?
Some lady and her boyfriend are walking in the woods, she tells him she’s pregnant from another man, he decides to raise the child.
Who made the 12-tone method, and what is it?
Schoenberg. It’s an atonal writing method which organizes pitches in a specific order throughout an entire piece.
What is serialism?
Use of the 12-tone method, “emancipation of dissonance”
What is the series of notes called in 12-tone?
Tone row
What does Klangfarbenmelodie mean?
Tone color melody
What was Berg’s style like?
Quasi-romantic, lyrical, more traditional than others
Who wrote Wozzeck, and what is it about?
Berg. About a soldier who is driven to murder and madness. He stabs his woman and drowns trying to wash her blood from his hands
Who was Stephane Mallarme?
A French Symbolist Poet
What did Sergei Prokofiev write?
Classical Symphony
Who composed orchestral pieces for Ballet Russe?
Who was the first ethnomusicologist?
Bela Bartok
What country was Bartok from?
Did Bartok quote folk tunes?
No, but he had 2000 of them
Where was Charles Ives from?
Danbury, Connecticut
Where did Charlies Ives study composition?
What was Ives’ job?
Selling insurance, not composing.
Who won a Pulitzer prize in 1947 for a piece he wrote about 40 years earlier?
How many keys is Ives’ Symphony #3 in?
What kind of music was Ives influenced by?
Band music, hymns, ragtime, patriotic songs
Which composer was a popular crossover artist?
George Gershwin
Who wrote Rhapsody in Blue, and what is it?
Gershwin, a piano concerto in a jazz style
How is a musical different from opera?
Simpler melodies and harmonies, dance emphasis, spoken dialog rather than recitative, microphones
What is the name of the symphonic poem Gershwin wrote?
An American in Paris
What orchestra was Leonard Bernstein a conductor and composer for, and for how long?
New York Philharmonic, 11 years
Who wrote West Side Story?
What is aleatoric music?
Chance music, not really music, like 4’33”
Which musician did aleatoric music?
John Cage
Who wrote Poeme Electronique, and what kind of music is it the first of?
Edgard Varese, electronic music
Who wrote Porgy and Bess, and what is it about?
Gershwin. Poor black people in Charleston, SC
What composer does Spielberg work with, and what movies has he done?
John Williams. Jaws, Star Wars, Harry Potter 1-4
Who wrote Five Pieces for Orchestra, and who was he taught by?
Webern, Schoenberg.
Whose art is in Musee Marmottan?
What kind of art is in Musee d’Orsay?
What is sprechstimme?
Half way between speaking and singing
Who wrote Pierrot Lunaire?
Who wrote Survivor from Warsaw?