Monophonic gradual chant from the Medieval Ages sung for liturgical purposes during Mass on Christmas Day. No rhythmic information. Syllabic singing on two words but mostly melismatic singing.
Viderunt Omnes by Anonymous. Gregorian chant from the fifth century.
Monophonic Gregorian Chant – woman singing. Each phrase of text receives its own phrase of music. Conjunct melody. A lot of melismatic syllables. (Antiphon – alternating phrases or responses)
O Rubor Sanguinis by Hildegard from c. 1150
antiphonal chant
an antiphonal chant origianlly used a musically interesting section sung by the choir (the antiphon) to frame a musically boring section (usually the recitational psalm tone). The antiphonal chants of the mass are the introit, offertory and communion. Also consists of responses.
Early church polyphony
Organum (polyphonic) that added three voices above an old chant. A tenor (the lowest voice) sustains the chant and provides harmonic support for the upper voices. It has a jaunty triple rhythm
The Great Organum built on Gregorian Chant Viderun Omnes by Master Perotinus.
A book of religious music written initially by Master Leoninus and then revised by Master Perotinus. Breaks from the ancient authority (chant) of the Church.
Magnus liber organi
Served as the “home church” of a bishop. During the twelfth century, many of these were built using commercial wealth generated in major cities.
The “Age of the Cathedrals”
Why has Gregorian Chant become popular?
It has stylistic traits in common with New Age music. Both project smooth, uniform, rhythmically fluid sounds that are nonassertive and nonconfrontational – the ultimate formula for relaxation and stress relief.
The best known work in the entire repertoire of medieval music. Twenty five minutes long and applies to music to the texts of the mass. Written by Machaut.
Messe de Nostre Dame
Which mass did Machaut set all of his chants to?
Ordinary of the mass
Proper of the Mass
chants whose texts changed to suit, or “be proper for” the feat day in question
Ordinary of the Mass
Chants with unvarying texts that were sung virtually every day
Ars nova
Music of the 14th century of France
Monophonic song that is a virelai with asymmetric phrases
Je Vivroie Liement by Guillaume de Machaut c1300-1377 (ars nova)
A bb’a A bb’ a A where the little a connotes the same musical melody with different text
The first section of the ordinary mass in Messe de Nostre Dame. Uses polyphony where there are now a soprano, bass, tenor, and alto parts. Uses triple meter in polyphonic sections.
Kyrie of Messe de Nostre Dame (c1360) by Guillaume de Machaut – Medieval Ages
A three voice motet that sings three texts simultaneously (polytextual). The top voice uses isorhythm, which means the melody is based on a repeated rhythmic pattern and the pitch pattern are different lengths.This is also a work where the use of hocket is observed. The tenor voice is slow and has a short part. The motetus is the middle voice and is slower moving. Finally, the triplum is the top voice and moves along very quickly.
Quant en Moy by Guillaume Machaut – Medieval Ages
Another three voice motet, but this one is considerably slower so the rhythm seems less nervous. This one also sounds more like women singing the top part.
Quant en moy by Guillaume Machaut – Medieval Ages
This is a song that was marked the transition to the Renaissance in the early 1400s so it doesn’t use any gregorian chant as its base. It has three voices that all move in similar rhythm and speed. Sounds like major mode, a lot of use of the interval of a third, empty fifths at cadences.
Quam pulchra es by John Dunstable (1390-1453) – transition to the Renaissance (early 1400s)
Where did most of the important developments of the early Renaissance occur?
France and Italy
This song incorporates Gregorian chant into a polyphonic composition called paraphrase technique. It is written in alternatim performance, which means that verses of polyphony alternates with verses of centuries old plainchant.
Veni Creator Spiritus by Guillaume Dufay – Renaissance
paraphrase technique
Crafting a new melody based upon chant by adding notes and providing a smooth rhythm
This is another example of early Renaissance paraphrase technique. In this song, unlike the previous example, even numbered verses are sung in Gregorian chant –> he also makes the song into 6 musical phrases.
Veni Creator Spiritus by Gilles Binchois – early Renaissance
This is an example of a madrigal, the Italian equivalent of a chanson. It uses repeated notes, large skips in the melody, repetition schemes, homophonic texture with some imitation, syllabic singing. ABA form
El Grillo (The Cricket) by Josquin des Prez – Renaissance
This is a six-voice madrigal that appeared in the Triumphs of Oriana.
As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending by Thomas Weelkes (1601) – Renaissance
A printed collection of madrigals by various composers dedicated to Queen Elizabeth of England, the so-called Virgin Queen. As Vesta was From Latmos Hill Descending is included in this.
The Triumphs of Oriana
A somber madrigal in which the soprano voice is very prominent. with an ABB form. Clear cadence on even lines.
The Silver Swan by Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625) – Renaissance
One of the most popular Italian madrigals of the Renaissance.
Il bianco e dolce cigno (The White and Sweet Swan) by Jacques Arcadelt (1505-1567) – Renaissance Secular Music
Very distinct because it uses an instrument in the background
I must sing by Coutess of Dia – Medieval
neumonic organum chant
Viderunt Omnes by Perotinus – Medieval
Ce moy de May – This Month of May by Dufay- Medieval
Ars Perfecta music from the Renaissance.
Missa Papae Marcelli, Gloria and Agnus Dei by Palestrina – Renaissance
Ave Maria by Josquin des Prez – Renaissance