A word for all the elements of music that concern time; it includes such things beat, meter, accent, syncopation, etc. 
This word refers to notes that follow each other in secquence, rather than occuring at the same time; some definitions indicate that the notes must be “agreeable” or pleasant, but that is subject to evaluation.
The word for the sound of pitches (or notes) which occur simultaneously, or at the same time; again, it is subjective, and the harmony need not be “agreeable” or pleasant to the ear for it to fall into this defintion.
This word refers to the combination of melody and harmony in a piece. Monody, homophony, and polyphony are three types.
This is the way the piece of music is put together, or constructed. It refers to the internal structure of the piece.
This word is used to describe the volume relationship within a piece of music; the relative volume of one section of the piece to another.
Literally, the name of the type. In music, this refers to the name of the type of piece (symphony, opera, concerto, etc.) or the type of style (blues, jazz, rock, folk, etc.).
The person who writes the piece of music. The writer of a book is its author, but the writer of a symphony is its composer.
The speed at which an object or column of air vibrates. The faster the vibration, the higher the pitch.
A graphic or physical representation of a pitch. Simply, a note is what is struck or played; the pitch is the sound that results.
The distance between any two pitches. If one pitch follows the other it is a melodic interval; of they occur simultaneously, it is a harmonic interval.
An arrangement or pattern of intervals which is used to produce a scale. There are many different modes possible.

An arrangement of notes which is used as the basis for a composition.

In music this refers to the combination of elements, such as melody, harmony, and rhythm, which give the music its distinctive sound. It could also refer to the use of these elements by a performer, resulting ina style of playing.
The main melody of a piece… the most recognizable part.