Early Baroque,Text painting, dionysian, Madrigal,
Barbara Strozzi
Early Baroque, Venice, continuo, cantatas.
Doctrine of affections
Renee descartes, six possible affections. used as template for music.
De Capo Aria
ABA format. Soloist ornaments on second A. Baroque, Dionysian
Antonio Vivaldi
Late Baroque, functionalist, concerto, programmatic music. (four seasons)
George Frideric Handel
Oratorio, Opera, Opera Seria. First true classical composer, but in baroque.
Johan Sebastian Bach
Late Baroque, functionalist. Chapelmaster in leipzig. Cantatas (based on chorales)
Oratorios. NO OPERA, counterpoint, perpetuum mobile.
Classical era
1750-1825- Apollonian, clean, beautiful melodies, little improvisation.
Franz Josef Haydn
Classical, patronage, won right to own work. Sense of humor. Taught Mozart, Beethoven
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Classical, 41 symphonies, Opera seria, Buffa(figaro) Singspeil, start of standartization of forms, genres
Romantic Era
1835-1900, focus on composer’s emotion. Focus on individual like enlightenment, unlike enlightenment emphasis not on rational. began in literature.
Classical/Romantic, Diva, developing motives, Per aspera ad astra, Eroica symphony, nine symphonies,
Romantic, Italian composer, Opera, Code Rossini, Rossini Crescendo, Double Aria, nice, good humor, anti-Beethoven
Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti
Under Code Rossini’s shadow, began to increase realism in Italian opera
Guisseppe verde
Confronted code rossini, more realism, became nationalist icon after Nabucco, Mamet style dialogue, no black and white
Franz Schubert
Under Beethoven, used Rossini style to write symphonies, did same with other composers
Robert, Clara Schuman
Also dealt with how to get past beethoven
Frederic Chopin
Under Beethoven. Product of salon culture, rich french threw money at him, character peices, avoided symphonies. Exoticism,
Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner
New German school, progressives, Beethoven ruined symphony for them, they had to move to other genres.
Programmatic symphonies, elaborate story from just instruments.
Symphonic poems, one movement, programmatic
Richard Wagner
Total Work, used for nazi propaganda, huge orchestra
Schumanns, Mendelssohn, Johhanes Brahms
Conservative school, against new germans.
Music is absolute, cannot refer to much outside itself, traditional forms still good.
Johannes Brahms,
Used traditional forms, was a genius, scholar, sampled, intricate, formal music, every genre but opera (Bach, Beethoven). Chamber music, piano music, symphonies
Emphasis on a shared culture, made by a minority. for independence, or recognition after achieving independence.
Jean Sibelius
Nationalist against russians. Finlandia
Czeck nationalist, smetana
Edward Elgar
Nationalist, for national pride, pomp and circumstance
Russian nationalist, ballet, symphonies,
wrote his heart beat stopping, personal music
1862-1918, neoclassicism, began 20th cent, used music from other cultures, studied older styles (neoclassical concept), impressionism.
20th century
Tonality not required, reactions to world events, expressionist music, serialism,
20th cent, serialism, pantonality, expressionist
Anton Webern
Schoenberg disciple,more interested in serialism, charted rhythm, expressionist, Timbre
Alan Berg
Schoenberg disciple, pantonal, romantic, expressionist,
French response to serialism, expressionism.
Maurice Ravel
Neoclassical functionalist, no problem with imitation, arranged orchestras, beauty drowned his emotion in le tombeu de couperin
Igor Stravinski
Distanced himself from russian nationalism
Sold more than schoenberg, rite of spring=primitivism, settled on pertuschka’s sophisticated, sarcastic social commentary. Taught at UCLA
Age of ISMS
Neoromantics, systematic serialism (milton babbitt), Chance music, Minimalism
(phillip glass), John Cage
Gustav Mahler = Great conductor, jewish, destroyed by nazi historians.
Beethoven=nazis wanted to associate themselves with him
Aaron Copland
Fanfare for the common man, saved him from the blacklist.
George Crumb
Black angels against vietnam
Dmitri Shostakovich
Genius, broken by stalin. Lady Macbeth of mtensk. Public music = communist, private = shrieking