sul ponticello
at or near bridge (italian)
sur la chevalet
at or near bridge (french)
am Steg
at or near bridge (german)
col legno battuto
strike with wood of bow (italian)
col legno tratto
drag wood of bow (italian)
sul tasto
over fingerboard (italian)
sur la touche
over fingerboard (french)
only slightly over fingerboard (french)
am griffbrett
over fingerboard (german)
avec le bois
with the wood (fr.)
mit Holz
with the wood (Ger.)
characteristics of playing at/near the bridge
glassy, eerie, most effective with bowed tremolo.
characteristics of playing over the fingerboard
soft, less resonant, popular with French Impressionistic composers
Tremolo (at point)
(Tremolo) Punta d’arco
con sordino(-i)
with mute (It.)
[avec] sourdine(s)
With mute (fr.)
mit Dampfer
with mute (ger.)
a virtuoso solo technique; type of spiccato (fr. “leap”) used for very fast, very light passages. Uses resilience of the bow to bounce more than regular spiccato (in which the player lifts and drops the bow more consciously)
Staccato Volante
“Flying Staccato”; a type of spiccato where the notes are on one bow, played very fast. (ex: eight 16th notes on an up bow)
T or F?
Detache means that each note is bowed separately, but one can play the notes smoothly joined or less joined as desired
True. This bowing is very versatile. hurray. One can emphasize the articulation that naturally happens with the changing of the bow or one can smoothly join the notes with appropriate bow speed and a certain degree of class and/or gentility, if you will.
on-the-string. this word means “hammered” and is most often in the upper part of the bow, but this technique can be used at the frog for a more “robust” effect. Must be done at a speed where there can be a slight break between notes. Fast hurling of the bow across the string (think Detache on crack?). Fast, abrupt bow with fast, abrupt stop.
Martele can be indicated with:
a) dots
b) arrowheads
c) accents
d) any combination of the above
D! It’s wild. I know.
slurred staccato is generally __-bow. What types are described in our textbook? (describe)
UP (V);
1) a primarily up-bow bow of 3 or 4 (sometimes more) notes. They sound like separate bows.
2) hooked (or linked) bowing- up or down bow. consists of 2 notes and a dotted rhythm.

(check out 4 notations of this on that p. of text.)

Loure is AKA
portato; brush stroke
on-the-string; slow, expressive character; 2 to 4 notes-ish per bow with separate pressure and a slight initial swelling of sound on each note. There is almost VERY SUBTLE break between notes.
Jete is AKA
a down-bow, off-the-string stroke; 2-6 notes usually; usually on a repeated note; notated with a slur and dots under notes (might say “saltando”); fast, accented; reasonably loud (f or mf); can be used to do things that are hard to do (the first two notes of the repeating rhythmic pattern in william tell overture)
at tallone
(it.) at the frog
du talon
(fr.) at the frog
touching point is a P5 from fundamental
harmonic sounds one octave and a P5 above fundamental
am Frosch
(Ger.) at the frog
via sordini
Remove mute (it.)
envelez les sourdines
Remove mute (fr.)
Dampfern weg
Remove mute (ger.)
(de la) pointe
at point of bow (fr.)
at point of bow (ger.)
String instruments in Italian (plural in parenth.)
Violino (Violini)
Viola (Viole)
Violoncello (Violoncelli)
Contrabasso (Contrabassi)
String instruments in French (plural in parenth.)
Violon (Violons)
Alto (Altos)
Violoncelle (Violoncelles)
Contre Basse (Contre Basses)
String instruments in German (plural in parenth.)
Violine (Violinen) or Geige (Geigen)
Bratsche (Bratschen)
Violoncell (Violoncelle)
kontrabass (Kontrabasse.. with two dots over the a in basse)
Bowing depends on two things
1) what is in following measure
retune one or more strings (double bass or solo violin usually)
multistops are easier in ____ positions, so ____ will occur frequently
open; 5ths and 6ths
Touching point: P4 above fundamental
Harmonic sounds two octaves above fundamental
Touching point: M3 above fundamental
Resulting Harmonic sounds two octaves and a M3 above fund.
“spelling the bows”
the inside player on each stand makes bow changes at different places than outside player; used when composer calls for more dynamics and scoring requires more from string-section than they can normally give.
snap pizz symbol
circle with line coming out (looks like a freehand “Q” almost)
nail pizz symbol
looks like a fingernail; used to look like a circle with a dot inside it.
quasi guitara
triple or quadruple stops marked pizz
Orchestra size formula (typical)
an upside-down pyramid shape; if there are 12 VlnI, there will be 10 VlnII, 8 violas, 6 cellos, 3 or 4 basses.
so i guess remember you can basically subtract two coming down from number of first violins for each subsequent section.
Typical orchestra seating (from left to right)
VlnI, VlnII, Violas, Cellos, Double basses behind violas and cellos
Baroque seating (from left to right); what function does it serve in the music
(check this answer with google or something because i have a bunch of question marks next to this in my notes): VlnI, Viola, Cello, VlnII; Violins straddle orchestra to enhance the contrapuntal style of the era.
dampen string symbol
looks like a crosshair