Pedal tone
the fundamental of the harmonic series
French horn with both Bb and F tubing (alternate with button)
ohne Dämpfer
Ger. without mute
Fr., brassy
It. trumpet
used to play super soft; sounds distant
Harmon mute
metal mute with stem slide (mainly used with trumpet)
bouché, bouchés
Fr., "stopped horn"; hand shoved deep into horn
double tongue
It’s the detache of horn playing; alternates tongue and throat sound
trigger for trombone (not on all); lowers from Bb to F
New notation for horns
Notated a 5th higher in bass clef (and same in treble clef)
Old notation for horns
notated a 4th lower than concert pitch
How many horns are in a chamber orchestra?
How many horns are in a small orchestra?
1 or 2
How many horns are in a Symphony Orchestra?
5; 4 parts and 1 “assistant french horn” who doubles any part at certain times for security and/or volume
How many horns are in a Symphony Orchestra?
5; 4 parts and 1 “assistant french horn” who doubles any part at certain times for security and/or volume
Written Range of Horn (possible)
[image] transpose to written Bb trumpet
Eb Tuba possible written range
Trumpet Written possible range
Treble Baritone (possible written range)
Trombone possible written range


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transpose to written F Horn



transpose to written note treble baritone



transpose to written bass clef baritone



Transpose to Written F Tuba;



write sounded note

D# below middle C (old notation sounds an octave higher then add a whole step for the horn in D)


write sounded note

F# below bass staff

Is this right???? check this


write sounded note

same note!!; non-transposing instrument
how to find the range of a horn

reference note is C below middle C on the second space of bass clef:

highest note- go three octave above

lowest- tritone below


I think it’s the only brass that goes 3 oct. instead of two oct. above basic pitch?

how to find range of every brass besides horn

Find basic pitch (key of instrument)

highest: 2 oct. above

lowest: tritone below

How to determine if old or new notation is being used
if a horn note goes on a ledger line below bass clef, it is in old notation (because it is an octave too low to modern eyes)
Two types of melodies for horns

1) a) hunting horn type solo… Perfect intervals, triads, scale motion

b) Hunting horn type solo with some chromatic passing tone thanks to valve development

2) simple melodies in middle range of piano (due to drive and intensity in this range)

know how to find harmonic series
horn, it.

corno, corni


Back in the day, in Italy, they use horns to make the corn grow faster, since corn was totally not native to Italy. So they just went ahead and named the horn section "corni"


Oh also, they sometimes made really weird pornos featuring a lone horn soloist, hence the hybrid term "corno"

horn, fr.

cor, cors


French is just plain hard"cor" when it comes to horns. and lovin’. and eiffel towers.

ger., horn

horn, horn;r


little jack horn;r sat in a corner.; He was German and he was playing more than one horn.

3 things about transposition:


1) affects mostly treble clef-playing instruments


2) When a transposing instrument reads a C, the note is the key of the instrument itself


3) The sounding note is lower than the C (with a few exceptions in smaller instruments)

rule for range of trumpet vs transposition
if the interval is bigger than a P4, put it up an octave

characteristics of cylindrical brass


brighter, stronger (louder)

more penetrating sound

i.e. trumpets, trombones

characteristics of conical brass

warmer, darker, more reticent

less penetrating

i.e. everything besides trumpets and trombones

Three things horns are good for

1) solos (second most used solo instrument)

2) accompaniment

3) melodies in unison

Two types of horn accompaniment

1) sustained

2) rhythmic (i.e. ;oompa; of waltzes)

horn notation signaling ;open; (unmuted) note
circle above
horn notation signaling muted note
crossbow cross above note
Fr., stopped



Think Bobby bouch; quit school or was retarded or something in Waterboy or billy madison or whatever f’ing adam sandler movie.  He STOPPED doing something.. or something. because he was french.  probably trying to french kiss something or someone.

Ger, "stopped"



think German Gestapo, the Nazi secret police. it looks similar.  and they stopped a lot of good times.

It., "stopped" (horn)
chiuso, chiusi
trombone range
stopped note sounds different than written… how?
half step higher than written
Added notes with the trigger (aka F attachment) (trombone)

1st position:  F below bass clef (not a new note, but a different location to play this note)

2nd position: E below bass clef (also (not a new note, but a different location to play this note)

3rd position: Eb series

4th pos: D

5th: Db

6th: C


first pedal tone (trombone)
Bb octave below basic pitch (lower than cello!)
second pedal tone (next lower from first) (trombone)
Two easiest pedal tones for trombone
Bb and A
Can a trombone player play a low B natural (below bass clef)?
Not with slide down unless they are a specialist bass trombonist with a second trigger
Trombones are used in groups of ___
When trombones play in a group of three, what clef does each read?

1st: alto clef

2nd: tenor clef

3rd: bass clef

3 uses of trombone in ensemble

1) they are the bottom of the brass section

2) sustained chords (very wide dynamic range; accompany or background)

3)  all trombones in unison for a strong emphasis (i.e. Dvorak’s new world symphony)


In band, trombones play what would traditionally be a ____ part
cello; trombone parts are much more difficult in band than orchestra
What do you have to keep in mind in order to do Glissando on a trombone?
All the notes of the gliss. must be in one position (register) to be pure
C tuba plays ____ lower than trumpet
2 octaves lower
3 things about tuba, the biggest brass of all

1) all written in bass clef
2) all non-transposable
3) can’t do treble clef, so change a treble line to bass clef

Name two small Tubas
Eb and F
Name two large-ass tubas
C and Bb
What is the most popular tuba in symphony orchestra?
C for "can’t touch this;
5 attributes of the orchestra tuba

1) play low notes (2 or 3 ledger lines below staff at least)
2) bass lines
3) combine with 3 trombones (like a men’s quartet)
4) can double cellos and/or basses (i.e. Wagner)
5) Rarely has a solo… plays very few notes

Baritone, aka euphonium looks like
a half-size tuba
Baritone, aka euphonium always gets left out of
orchestra. only plays in bands
Baritone, aka euphonium is ______ trumpet
pitched an octave below trumpet.  In fact, the treble clef-reading baritone has the same fingerings as the trumpet (just sounds an oct. lower) and this we call a transposing instrument
Baritone, aka euphonium, has the same range as ____
trombone. WHEN it is in bass clef (nontransposing)

Scoring for brass

 if the dynamic is mf or louder:

two horns are needed to balance one trumpet or one trombone

Scoring for brass

below mf, 

one horn will suffice

Scoring for brass quartet

horns vs. trumpets 

horns are placed above trumpets in score in spite of their lower range (because trumpets played with timpani back in the classical period)
 a few contemporary classical scores (e.g. some Prokofiev) place trumpets above horns as do all scores for band and wind ensemble

trumpets and horns sounds better in _____ spacing
safe upward limit for entrance in horn
g on top of treble clef
safe upward limit for entrance in trumpet
g on top of treble clef
safe upward limit for entrance in trombone
F above tenor clef staff
woodwind section of a professional orchestra includes:


two flutes

two oboes

two clarinets

two bassoons


plus any or all of the auxiliary woodwinds:

piccolo, alto flute, English horn, Eb clarinet, bass clarinet, contrabassoon


keep in mind that any section could split to sub an aux inst.


two ways to notate a divisi passage where only one section of instrument plays


1) a. for top part, Have "1." or "1°" or "primo" written above the passage

b. for bottom part, have "2." or "2°" or "secondo" written above passage

2) a. written whole not rests below the passage

b. written whole not rests above the passage

It., woodwinds


or Fiati


notate both instruments play in unison

1. write "a2" above passage ("to two" in Italian")

2. double-stem if the instruments play same notes in just a few parts

woodwinds in orchestra

divisi and unisono

never used in orchestra for woodwinds!!!!! just show 1. or 2. and its dynamics when the part enters (below the staff unless 1 and 2 have different dynamic markings at the same time)



slurring vs. phrasing

show slurring instead of phrasing
relationship between strings’ bowing and slurring in the winds in a piece

1) sometimes the slur marks coincide with each other

2) the unified effect will be achieved, but sometimes slurs don’t line up because strings have to change bow

Ger., Flutter-tonguing



It looks like fluttertongue if a drunken German man said it.  "FLATTERZUNGE!"

It., Flutter-tonguing
no one knows
Fr., woodwinds
Ger., brassy
Ger., woodwinds
It., Brass(es)




Fr., Brass
Ger., Brass
It. flute, flutes
Flauto, Flauti
Fr., flute, flutes
Flûte, Flûtes
Ger., flute, flutes
Flöte, Flöten
It., oboe, oboes

Oboe, Oboi


Italians + Oboes= "O Boi!"



Fr., oboe, oboes

Hautbois, Hautbois

(yes it’s the same)

Ger., oboe, oboes

Oboe, Oboen

old spelling: Hoboe, Hoboen

(this was back when the instruments wandered around homeless)

It., English Horn
Corno Inglese
Fr., English Horn
Cor Anglois
Ger., English Horn
Englisch Horn
It., Clarinet
Clarinetto, Clarinetti
Fr., Clarinet
Clarinette, Clarinettes
Ger., Clarinet
Klarinette, Klarinetten
Fr. muted effect
Ger., muted effect

mit D;mpfer




It. return to open (unmute)

senza sordino


Fr., return to open (unmute)



Ger., return to open (unmute)



safe lower limit for stopped notes

(written) Gg below middle C


in muting and stopping, the pitch ____ and ____

muting: lowers pitch a half step

stopped: raises pitch a half-step


right?? please correct me if I’m wrong….


hint: muting lowers the volume of something. stopping is the opposite. In fact, if you tell some people to stop doing something, they’ll just get even more obnoxious or even raise things a half step


composite term calling for stopped and brassy tone

brass lightly
cuivrez l;g;rement
Fr., Bells in the air
pavillons en l’air
Ger., Bells in the air

Schalltrichter auf


Schalltrichter Hoch

how to achieve lontano


marking: pp or ppp


some players employ a partly stopped tone

others stop completely

others play open extremely softly

sons d’;cho
how to find range of tuba

lowest note: go a tritone down from key of tuba

highest: 2 oct up from key

which register of instruments is good for closed position?
which register of instruments is good for open position?
Name and be able to; notate three brass section setups
know what each instrument does well

what is the ;bore of the brass instrument?;

he said we needed to know this…..???????