Agma Tirta
Religion of Holy Water. Blend of Hinduism and Buddhism. Brought to Bali from Java in the 13th century
human soul
Bahasa Indonesia
National Indonesian Language
Contains less than 2% of Indonesian population. One of 13000 islands in Republic of Indonesia. Large tourist industry. Society based in mutal cooperation. Ruled by Kings. Supported artistic, cultural, and spiritual traditions. Most are Hindu.
Bali Aga
The indigenous people of Bali, whose culture and religion predate the arrival of Hinduism and Buddhism. Bali Aga mainly live in remote Balinese villages and have distinctive, ancient forms of gamelan.
Village ward, hamlet, neighborhood organization; responsible for core communal, religious, and social acitvities of its membership including cremations and other mortuary rituals; most gamelan clubs are organized at the banjar level.
Clangy gong
Ceng Ceng
several small, overlapping cymbals nailed to a frame. Symbols play quickly and repeat.
In kreasi beleganjur music, the adoption and adaption of three-part forms, derived from older, classical Balinese gamelan traditions.
Burning of the body into ashes. Drove away malevolent spirits. Releases soul so it can begin afterlife journey and reincarnate. Whole community sings sacred verses, also gamelan.
Cremation Tower
Tower spins at crossraods to keep deceased’s spirit safe and drive away evil spirits. Accompanied by malpal (song).
Word means “orchestra” or “ensemble” “to handle.”
Bronze gongs, metallophones, drums, end-blown bamboo flutes.
Related turning systems, scales, modes.
Multipart texture; higher instruments play faster.
Slower core melody embellished by faster melodies on other instruments.
Associated with dance, dance-drama, shadow puppetry.
Basis in Hindu beliefs (reflected in music).
Gamelan Beleganjur
“Gamelan of walking warriors.” Processional ensemble, walk or march. Historically, warfare, battles with evil spirits, rituals for the dead. Modern, musical contests, cremations. Two types are traditional and Kreasi. Consists of multiple gongs, drums, and cymbals.
Gamelan Gong Kebyar
Best-known type of Baalinesee gamelan. Instrumentation features gangsa metallophones; gongs of many types, sizes and functions; drums cymbals, and other instruments. Associated with virtuosic keybar musical style.
Gamelan Suara: Kecak
Gamelan suara or “voice gamelan.” Dance- drama based in trance ritual called Sanghyang Dedari. Uses syllables for gongs. Represents episode from Ramayana (Hindu epic). Presnted as “traditional and authentic.” Idea was by German painter Walter Spies and Balinese locals for German film Die Isle der Damonen.
Common, eight beat gong cycle used in beleganjur and other Balinese music traditions.
Gong Agung
The agung is a large, heavy, wide-rimmed gong shaped like a kettle gong. Each gong of the agung produces a bass sound in the kulintang orchestra
Java: Island in Indonesia. Colonized by Dutch, became ind in 1949. Languages, Bahasa Indonesia.
Javanese Court Gamelan
Expansive, majestic. is a recording of the gamelan of the Paku Alaman court in Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. The gamelan in the recording is an heirloom gamelan, made in 1755 for Paku Alam I.
Responsible for keeping tempo of the gamelan. Often plays every beat. Kettle drum.
In kreasi beleganjur music, the incorporation of musical elements and stylistic influences derived from gamelan gong kebyar music.
double-headed, conical-shaped drum. There are two in the kebyar ensemble, one male and one female Female is often leader of ensemble.
Kilitan Telu
Pattern of Ceng ceng (symbols).Communal interdependence
ard-driving, highly energetic style of beleganjur played used at crossroads along the procession route during Balinese cremation process.
is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India. explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the “Self”) and the workings of karma.
shimmering sound created between male and female instruments. Without it, gamelan is dead.
Paired Tuning
The tuning of the pitches of the “male” and “female” instruments of a Balinese gamelan to slightly different frequencies; striking the “same” pitch simultaneously on a male-female pair creates ombak; female instruments of each pair are tuned lower than their male counterparts.
Mass ritual suicides
Hindu epic. Abduction of the princess Sita by an evil king (Rawana); rescued by Prince Rama and a band of monkeys.
Religion in Indonesia
It is stated in the first principle of the state ideology, Pancasila: “belief in the one and only God”. A number of different religions are practiced in the country, and their collective influence on the country’s political, economical and cultural life is significant. 86.1% were Muslims, 5.7% Protestant, 3% are Catholic, 1.8% Hindu, 3.4% Buddhist and other or unspecified.
Four small, hand-held gongs played in interlocking style; main function is to elaborate the music’s core melody.
concept, places, gods: Upper World, gods and venerated ancestors; live in Heave above Mt. Agung. Home to Trimurti of the Hindu deity, Brahma, Wisnu, ad Siwa. Middle World, Bali itself. Lower World beings at th sea and deeper, home to evil spirits.
Unity in Diversity
The national slogan of the Republic of Indonesia; important relative to Indonesia policies of cultural diversity, preservation and development of indigenous cultural traditions, and nationalism.
The Dutch
Colonized Bali very late (1906-1908)
Michael B Bakan
Balinese gamelan and scratch turntablist. Gong cycle, core melody, melodic interlocking, stratified study. Western style chords, bass drums, turntable, shortened kilitan telu pattern.
Claude Debussy
Heard gamelan at world fair in 1889. French composer. Worked with impressionist music. Ostinato, peddle point, large scale.
I Ketut Suandita
Gamelan composer and musician. By 23, composed winning composition for 3 of Bail’s most prestigious contests (lead dummer in 2).
Wira Ghorava Cakti: Gong cycle and kempli drops out. 3 standars