Vivaldi, Concerto: “Spring,” first movement.


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-Ritornello form and “episodes”
-instruments from the orchestra join the soloist in some of the solo episodes, giving the impression of a concerto grosso
-both movements are also full of echo effects
-Basso continuo (applied to Baroque in general)
-Bird imitations
-written in the key of E major
-the ritornella is made up of two phrases, both of which occur at the beginning of the movement

J. S. Bach, Prelude and Fugue for Organ.*

*Be able to distinguish the Prelude from the Fugue


-Played in E minor

 -In the Prelude

              -the first long pedal low note is pure, simple and flutey. Then the organist uses the stops    to make the subsequent pedal notes richer and fuller

 -In the Fugue

  -the organist uses the stops to set up what seem like two different instruments, one with    an oboe-like sound and one with a clarinet-like sound

 -these instruments then compete with eachother throughout the piece

J. S. Bach, St. Matthew Passion, excerpts.

**Be able to identify the various sections of the excerpt 


-shows the composer’s mastery at achieving a fusion of seriousness and expressiveness suitable to the biblical text
-the role of narrator for the Gospel story is performed by the “Evangelist” (tenor), who sings in recitative with a simple continuo accompaniment.
-The words of Jesus (bass) are “haloed” by lush string accompaniment.
-The chorus portrays responses of the twelve disciples
-This is most effective when Jesus predicts tha tone of them will betray them…if you listen carefully you will hear eleven questions. The voice of the twelfth disciple-Judas-is missing
-The soprano soloist begins this excerpt in an aria that beautifully reflects the situation that is ultimately the focus of the entire work
-Whole piece is rounded off in peace 

Handel, Messiah, Hallelujah chorus. 


-Chorus comes as the climax of Part II of Messia 

-displays extraordinary ingenuity in combining and contrasting all the possible textures available to him: unison, homophonic, polyphonic, and imitative

-much of the strength of the movement comes from its block alternation of simple tonic and dominant harmonies, as well as its triumphant use of trumpets and drums

-the hallelujah chorus falls into nine relatively symmetrical sections, each featuring a single texture or combination of textures 

Haydn, Symphony no. 47, Minuet and Trio.    


-In G Major

-full of dynamic contrasts and juxtapositions of different instruments 

Haydn, String Quartet no. 33, 4th movement. 


In the form of Rondo, A B A B A C A  B A D A  Coda

-Between appearances of the main theme are passages of contrasting material known as episodes

-wrote this movement in the attractive and bouncy meter of 6/8 and in a fast tempo which makes the music particularly lively and fun. But the joke comes in the final measures as the listener has no idea where the ending really is

Haydn, “Surprise” Symphony, 2nd movement (excerpt)


-Surprise because of surprise parts

-Slow piece dominated by string instruments

Mozart, Symphony no. 40, 1st movement.   


-marked by perfect balance and control, a wealth of harmonic and instrumental color, and a brilliant use of formal structure

-takes advantage of the dramatic possibilities of sonata form

-balance between loud and soft, woodwinds and strings, descending and ascending phrases, and minor and major keys

-spices up the sound with chromatic passages and surprise notes

-one of Mozart’s best known works


Beethoven,  Symphony no. 5, 1st movement.  

-Classical-Romantic Transition

-dense and concentrated, not a note or gesture too many in the whole movement
-In sonata form, begins with short-short-short-LONG motive that colors almost every measure of the movement
-throughout the movement, long crescendos and short passages of quiet music serve to increase the intensity and drive. The overall effect is one of great power and compassion 

Schubert, Art song (Lied): “The Trout.”  


-Written to the poem of a German poet, Christian Friedrich Schubart

-gives the melody and its accompaniment an equal share in the musical interpretation of the poem

-begins with a piano introduction based on a “rippling” figure that evokes the smooth flow of a stream. This figure dominates the accompaniment

-first two stanza sung to same music

-The perfect matching of the music to the emotional content and the pictorial makes this song  a mini masterpiece