Those characteristics of traditional African music and culture that can be heard and seen in the music of the New World.
a)The activities of a particular society
b) the ‘things’ a particular society uses (language, dress, food, houses, modes of transportation, tools, musical instruments, etc.)
c) the set of beliefs, values, traditions, needs, knowledge and technological developments, etc., that determine what a society does and what it uses.
oral tradition
Everything is transmitted by listening, watching, and remembering. Nothing is written down.
Interactive performance
Takes place in many ways in African music. Occurs among musicians (and their respective parts in the overall texture of the music), between musicians and listeners and (sometimes in very intricate ways) between musicians and dancers.
Call and response
Involves the alternation between a soloist (whether a singer or instrument) and a group.
Antiphonal interaction
Involves the alternation of groups (either instruments or singers).
Leader over group
Involves a soloist (singer or instrument) accompanied by a group of singers and/or instruments.
Polyphonic texture
Refers to any music in which several layers of melody (or rhythm) of equal importance or interest are heard continuously.
Involves a group of musicians, each one of whom typically contributes only one pitch or tone to the overall fabric of the music.
An important aspect of almost all African music. Tends to have the following characteristics:

a) a clear and steady beat or pulse
b) A moderate to fast tempo, usually over 90 beats per minute (bpm)
c) multiple layers whose sole or primary function is rhythm
d) syncopation

Refers to strong sounds (accents) between the beats.
Open-ended, repetitive forms
Music that might last a long time without anything ‘new’ happening; based on the constant repetition of short phrases of rhythm and/or melody.
A short repeating rhythm of 2-8 beats
The succession of pitches; largely determined by the scale (set of pitches) from which the notes are drawn.
The simultaneous sounding of multiple pitches.
Instruments that produce sounds by means of vibrating strings.
A string (or multiple strings) stretched between the ends of a curved stick; usually played by striking or plucking the vibrating string which is held near the player’s open mouth to increase the resonance and alter the tone; type of chordophone.
Multiple strings of roughly equal length attached within a four-sided frame consisting of a sounding box, two side arms, and a crossbar; Type of chordophone.
Multiple strings of graduated length stretched between two sides of a triangular frame; Type of chordophone
Consists of a resonating box of varying size and shape, a neck, and from one to several strings stretched across the body and along the neck; similar to guiat or banjo; type of chordophone
A 21-string harp-lute; covers a range of 3 octaves; common in a large area of West Africa; type of chordophone
Multiple strings stretched over a sounding board, box, trough, or tube; type of chordophone
Instrument in which sound is produced by a vibrating column of air enclosed within a tube or chamber; Instruments in this family are subdivided according to the method by which the column of are is set into motion
Blow hole
The player blows across a round opening at or near the end of a hollow tube; similar to a flute; type of aerophone
Air is forced though a narrow opening and directed against a thin wedge; type of aerophone.
Single reed
Air is forces toward the thin edge of a flexible reed; similar to clarinet or saxophone; type of aerophone
Double reed
Air is forced between the thin edges of two flexible reeds; type of aerophone
Cup mouthpiece
The sound is produced when the player buzzes pursed lips against a cup-shaped mouthpiece (as in modern brass instruments), or against a round opening at the end or along the side of a horn; type of aerophone
Any instrument in which the sound is produced by a vibrating membrane; pretty much a drum
A single-headed, hourglass-shaped drum of medium size; type of membranophone
A catch-all category for all those instruments that do not produce sound by means of a string, column of air, or a membrane; Sound is produced by striking, shaking, rubbing, scraping, plucking, pulling, or twirling.
A hollow chamber filled with loose material or covered with a network of beads or shells that can be shaken, struck, or rubbed; type of idiophone
A hollow, open-ended chamber of metal or (less often) wood; type of idiophone
A graduated series of metal or wooden bars or planks mounted over a frame or an open pit and usually struck with padded sticks; type of idiophone
Series of graduated metal or wooden strips mounted on a board, box or gourd. The ends of the strips are plucked with the thumbnails; type of idiophone
Lamellophone consisting of about 20 slender, graduated, metal strips mounted on box or board; often placed inside a large, hollow calabash gourd to amplify the sounds, and the tones are sometimes modified by shells, bottle caps or wire attached to the body.
‘Talking’ instruments
Any instrument capable of producing 2-3 distinctive tones; drums are most frequently used, in large part because of their carrying power
Two ways in which instruments can talk
1. By playing a short phrase with a pre-determined meaning (e.g., taps, reveille, charge)

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

2. By imitating the rhythms and pitch inflections of language.

Associated groups
Groups with a formal connection to an institution such as a royal household, a religious shrine, an age-grade or occupational society; special status or training may be required.
Autonomous groups
Groups with no formal connection to established institutions; free-lance music/dance groups.
English terms referring to the payment of musicians (or dancers) by placing money against their foreheads.
Musical attributes – Singers
1. Knowledge of history, geneaology, suitable praise texts
2. A good memory
3. a ‘good’ singing voice, but this is not usually as important as verbal skills.
4. Expected to have a good ear: to sing in tune and rhythm
Musical Attributes – Instrumentalists
1. Physical Skills
2. Extensive knowledge of traditional songs, rhythms and dances
3. Ability to tune, repair, or make their own instruments.
4. Some may also need the same verbal knowledge expected of singers.
A traditional, hereditary musician of west Africa.
Jaliya families
Consist of male musicians who play instruments and can recite histories, and female praise singers and dancers; Not of high social status but they serve an important function in society and are supported by the wealthiest and most important families.
The basic impulse of the music’s momentum (what we hear that we can move with, tap our foot to, or clap our hands with.)
Rate at which the beat recurs; Most easily described as a specific number of beats per minute; In African music, it usually occurs in a range of about 80-160bpm.
Division of the beat
Sounds occuring between beats, most often in equal divisions of 2,3, or 4.
The number of layers of sound at any given time and how those layers relate to each other.
All voices singing or playing the same melody or rhythm.
Equal groups of voices or instruments singing or playing in alternation.
Medium of performance
The number of performers and the instruments and/or voices heard.