Der Lindenbaum ~ Schubert

how music relates to poem

-piano triplets in beginning as rustling leaves
-shift from major to minor key: shift from warm season to cold season
Schumann’s name in music
ASCH (A, Eb, C, B-nat)
SCHA (Eb, C, B-nat, A)
AsCH (Ab, C, B-nat)
response to upheavals in society
science and technology
refuge in solitude
ex. Schubert song cycle
Romantic themes and images
Enlightenment: knowledge and reason
humans in harmony with nature
Romanticism: mystery, emotion, transcendence, individual subjective experience
Going back: nature, folk (simple times), Middle Ages
Going away: travel, the exotic (anywhere outside Europe)
Going beyond or within oneself:
dreams, night; drugs; love (esp unrequited love) and sex; insanity and death; supernatural, the demonic; inexpressible longing
Romantic ideals of sound
*centered on individual’s subjective experience*
1. blurring (damper pedal)
2. ambiguity of key/meter (syncopation)
3. beautiful song-like melodies
4. dramatic shapes that imply a narrative
5. colorful orchestration
ex: blurring in Chopin’s Nocturne in D-flat
Joseph Berlinger
fictional character who represented the Romantic musician; was literally addicted to music, went to church for the music
E.T.A. Hoffman
Critic and composer during the Romantic period who thought that instrumental music was the ideal art. It didn’t have words to limit the listener.
Lied, Lieder
German art song, for solo voice and piano
initially modeled on folk song, piano becomes full partner, genre in which women excelled
ex: Example: Der Lindenbaum by Schubert
Song cycle
a group of songs performed in succession that tell or suggest a story
ex. Schumann’s Carnival or Example: Der Lindenbaum is a a Lied in Schubert’s song cycle, Winterreise.
character piece
a piece of characteristic music, especially for piano
Ex: Carnival by Schumann
Schumann’s hothead personality
Schumann’s contemplative dreamer personality
Davidsbund vs. the Philistines
Band of David vs. the Philistines of pop culture
*Schumann used this to refer to Rossini’s music as effect w/o cause*
melodic cells in Schubert’s Carnival that spelled his name:
ASCH (A, Eb, C, B-nat)
SCHA (Eb, C, B-nat, A)
AsCH (Ab, C, B-nat)
Polish folk dance in triple meter; stylized piano piece based on the dance
Ex: Chopin Mazurka in B-flat Major
type of short piano piece popular popular during Romantic period; marked by highly embellished melody and arpeggiated accompaniment
Ex. Chopin Nocturne in D-flat Major
nocturne texture
arpeggiated accompaniment in left hand, rubato, pedal, song-like
1782-1840: virtuso violinist and composer. known for writing “impossible” pieces for violin; audiences thought he was in cahoots with the Devil.
instrumental piece designed to develop a particular skill or performing technique Ex. Liszt: Trios Etudes de concert, No. 3, Un sospiro
octatonic scale
scale consisting of alternating whole and half steps
ex: Ex. Liszt: Trios Etudes de concert, No. 3, Un sospiro: bass line on last page
program music
instrumental music that tells a story or follows a narrative or other sequence of events, often spelled out in an accompanying text
idee fixe (fixed idea)
Hector Berlioz’s word for melody that is used throughout a piece to represent a person, thing, or idea, transforming it to suit the mood or situation
Ex. Berlioz’s First movement of Symphonie fantastique
Dies Irae
used in 5th mvt of Symphonie Fantastic, ironic because traditionally used in Mass services, but he transforms it into a witches dance
Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik
After Schumann injuried his right hand cutting his concert piano career short, he turned to composition and criticism, founding and editing Leipzig Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik (New Journal of Music) encouraging the study of older music and the talents of Chopin, Brahms, and Schubert.
Harriet Smithson
The first wife of Hector Berlioz and the inspiration for Symphony Fantastique.
Gesamtkunstwerk (total art work)
The combination of music and other art forms in large productions where the composer themselves were involved in full creative control. E.g.: Symphony Fantastique, Carnival, and Die Lindebaum (pieces where there is a story or large significance attached and the composer has creative control over the vision of his/her piece’s interpretation)
Endless Melody
large orchestra that plays throughout the Gesamtkunstwerk that relates the
inner part of the drama, voice is one line of the texture
“Viva Verdi”
Long live the King of Sardinia! (Vittorio Emanuele- King of Sardinia )
Samiel’s Motive
The diminished 7th chord with pizzicato bass, representing the devil and the temptation of evil from Der Freischutz.
Pierre-Auguste Beaumarchais
A French playwright known for writing the Figaro comedy plays. One of which was The Barber of Seville which was turned into an opera by Rossini.
Thematic transformation
used systematically and pervasively, a technique of where a leitmotif, or theme, is developed by changing the theme by using Permutation (Transposition or Modulation, Inversion, and Retrograde), Augmentation, Diminution, and Fragmentation. Developed primarily by Berlioz and Liszt
in which orchestral music or song was used to accompany the SPOKEN DIALOUGE
ex. Weber’s Der Freischutz
The Wolf’s Glen
scene in Der Freishchutz. Note Weber’s use of low, dark orchestral string
colors and demonic shrieks from the woodwinds to represent cavorting with dark powers
in this eerie space. The arrival of Max, the young gamesman, is accompanied by bright horn calls, our constant reminder that he is a man of the hunt. THE DEVIL ISN’T ALLOWED TO SING BECAUSE THE DEVIL DOESN’T DESERVE MUSIC
Bel canto
ornamented melodies, light tone, seemingly effortless technique
The slow lyrical part of a two part aria
EX. FOR BOTH:The Barber of Seville: “Una voce poco fa” (Rosina)
The faster part of a two part aria
EX. FOR BOTH:The Barber of Seville: “Una voce poco fa” (Rosina)
Tempo di mezzo
The operatic scene structure developed by Rossini in the early 19th c., the middle section of an aria or ensemble, usually an interruption or a transition, that falls between the cantabile and the cabaletta.
(German-Leading motive) In an Opera or film score, a Motive, Theme, or musical idea associated with a person, thing, mood, or idea, which returns in original or altered form throughout
– association with persons, events, ideas
– musical interrelationships
“The Artwork or the Future”
Essay written by Wagner explaining music was to serve dramatic expression.
Bayreuth Festival Theater
The annual german festival of operatic works ( primarily wagnerian) that takes place at the theatre Wagner designed and built with the help of the Bavarian king Ludwig II.