cavalleria rusticana
manon lescaut
lucia di lammermoor
il travatore “miserere”
the four seasons “spring”
jesu, joy of man’s desiring
cannon in d
eine kleine nactmusik
symphony no. 5
peer gynt
the firebird suite
1812 overture
Ancient Greek Festivals were dedicated to…
What was the incentive to perform?
Cities would give rewards to citizens for the best portrayal which led to acting
1st actor to step out of the chorus and play and individual character
Thespians were named after who?
• Thespis: 1st actor to step out of the chorus and play and individual character
o Thespians named in his honor
Responsibilities of a Chorus:
o Represent the townspeople
o Fill in details of the plot
o Play an objective role
o Music and dance
Greek amphitheater was
ancient and sophisticated
What was given to Greek performers?
Prizes were given to the best performances (usually and laurel wreath)
What 2 genres came from Greek theatre?
Comedies and Tragedies
Which genre of Greek performance was free? Which was crude and women were not allowed to attend?
Tragedies were free to attend (helped bring a community spirit and to scare people away from human flaws like pride)

Comedies were lewd

Characteristics of all Greek Theatre
o All people wore masks
o Only men (women were played by young boys [higher voices])
o If they hated it they threw tomatoes at the stage
o All plays took place in 24 hours
What does Tragedy mean?
Tragedy literally means goat song
Tragos means
Ode means
Tragoidia means
goat song
Mimesis of a Praxis means
“imitation of universal action”
Characteristics of a good Tragedy:
• Illustrated by Aristotle in “The Poeticts”
• Something everyone can relate to (themes)
• We need to feel a part of the play
• Aristotle’s Poetics “a recipe for good drama”
Table to Memorize
Tragedy Comedy
Noblebirth Low social status
Reversal of Fortune Reversal of Fortune
(good to bad) (bad to good)
Force that causes the Force that causes the reversal reversal of fortune: FATE of fortune: LUCK
In a tragedy the main character is born of
In a comedy the main character is born
into low social status
In a tradgey the plot comes by
Reversal of Fortune
(good to bad)
In a comedy the plot develops because of
Reversal of Fortune
(bad to good)
Force that causes the reversal of fortune in a tragedy
Force that causes a reversal of fortune in a Comedy
What is “the Poetics”
a recipe for a good drama
Who wrote “the Poetics”
In a tragedy, is the hero without flaws?
The tragic hero, born of noble birth, not without flaws
called the “tragic flaw” a characteristic or action that the tragic hero has or does that causes his reveral of fortune
What is often the hamartia?
Hubris (pride)
If the praxis is good what will is produce?
If the praxis a good one, it will produce catharsis (to medicate or purify)
What are by products of tragedies?
• Aelios: pity
• Phobos: fear
tragic or comic hero (usually the title of the play)
2nd most important, opposing the protagonist
foil character
make us notice something in the protagonist
big speech of a drama, actor or actress really shines, protagonist alone (they talk out loud to themselves)
comic, secret to the audience, someone comes to the side and tells the audience something
Plot is made up of:
• Exposition: set up the scene, who, where, when, intro
• Complication: problem is seen
• Climax/crisis: moment of greatest intensity, you don’t know who will live and who will die
• Denouement: final unraveling of the plot (wedding)
set up the scene, who, where, when, intro
problem is seen
moment of greatest intensity, you don’t know who will live and who will die
final unraveling of the plot (wedding)
What is the medium of our day?
Why is film possible?
Individual photographs run together (happens because of 2 reasons)
o Persistence of vision: the image stays on our retina a fraction of a second longer than the picture is actually there
o Phiphenomena: creates movement when individual scenes run together
Persistence of vision
the image stays on our retina a fraction of a second longer than the picture is actually there
creates movement when individual scenes run together
Eadward Muybridge
man who stopped time (took the first picture of motion: his horse in mid air)
o June 15, 1878 Abe Edington (horse name)
Lumiere brothers
first public film screening (commercial films)
o December 28, 1895: 10 short films that lasted 20 minutes combined
Father of Special Effects in film (not very good at plot development)
o Used stop, trick, or substitution to fool people
o Most famous work: A Trip to the Moon (1902)
1st sound film or “talkie”
came in 1927 “The Jazz Singer”
frames per second for a silent film
16 frames per second- silent speed
Frames for second for sound
24 frames per second for sound
Film techniques
o Montage
o Cinematography
o Pan (from Panorama)
o Cross Cutting
o Form cut or match cut
o Direct Address
o Camera Angles
Montage both definitions
• The editing process (to the Europeans)
• Technique where brief moments are flashed for the viewer
artistic element (visually appealing) to appeal to our atestics side they use different locations, times of day, lenses
(from Panorama): one extreme to the other (usually left to right) (often used for battle scenes)
Cross Cutting
cutting from one characters to another’s story then back and forth
Form cut or match cut
transition between 2 scenes using the shape of an object (circular usually)
Direct Address
Character on film acknowledges an audience
Camera Angles
• Eye level
• Low angle
• High angle
• Bird’s eye view
• Tracking
Eye level
films at eye level: nothing psychological is implied just an informational shot
Low angle
subject appears larger than life: symbolizing the subject is intimidating, powerful, or dangerous)
High angle
subject appears smaller: symbolizing subject is weak, vulnerable, or small
Bird’s eye view
symbolizes death, fate or testimony
track that moves with the character, like the camera is on a train track
Orson Wells
pioneered the camera angles and techniques to influence a viewers psychological feelings for the movie Citizen Kane
4 Steps to an Opera
o 3 tenors in concert
o Opera highlights on CD
o Bizet’s Carmen
o Mozart’s magic Flute (Die Zauberflote)
What are Operas?
Plays where you sing in stead of speak!
Name the 3 tenors:
o Jose Carrera
o Placido Domingo
o Lucianno Pavarotti
big song of an opera, shows off the vocal dexterity of the performer and the compositional excellence of the composer
speech song
written script of the opera
Richard Wagner
o German
o Romantic Era
o Violin and piano
o He believed:
• Art will send a message
• Musikdramen
• Gesamtkunstwerk
• Leitmotiv
• Used Northern European myths (with Vikings)
Richard Wagner (dates)
all the art forms combined
total work of art
musical motifs that symbolizes a person or idea or thing (music that plays at Darth Vador walks into a scene)
Wagner’s most famous work
Der Ringdes Nibelunger: known as “the Ring” (16 hours long)
World Famous Arias
o “Nessun Dorma” from Turandot by Puccini
o “Queen of the Night” from The Magic Flute by Mozart
What is the formal name for musicals?
Music theatre
Where does Music Theatre come from?
Came from Opera to Vodville (Variety shows)
is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue- a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performers and the audience sitting at tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance.
1930-1949 Musical Theatre
1930-1940’s: fairy tale musicals called escapism (imaginary settings like the Wizard of Oz)
1950’s Music Theatre
1950’s folk musical: all about reality (great plots, music, and character development like West Side Story, South Pacific, Okalahoma, My Fair Lady)
o Willing suspension of disbelief: things that aren’t realistic but we don’t care, it comes with the entertainment ( Because we accept that real life is not as fun)
o Spectacle, great sets, costumes
Willing suspension of disbelief
things that aren’t realistic but we don’t care, it comes with the entertainment ( Because we accept that real life is not as fun)
Baroque music dates
Baroque Era Characteristics
o Major and Minor scales
o Symphony orchestra develops
o Most familiar instruments invented (no piano yet)
o Expression in music is primary endeavor (faith and religious)
o Emotions expressed through varying dynamics (volume of the piece) and tempo (rate of speed)
o Age of the Virtuoso: great composers are also great performers (masters of their instruments)
Germany- Keyboards

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Major Works (theme of his music is his faith)
• Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring
• Brandenburg Concertos
• St. Matthew’s Passion
• Toccata and Fugue
• Air on the G String

Germany/London: Keyboards
Italy (Venice): Violin
Classical Era Characteristics
o Neoclassicism in the visual arts (classical)
o Time period emphasizing in perfection in form
o Pianoforte invented (soft- strong/loud)
o Mozart (1756-1791)
Classical Era (dates)
Mozart (dates)
Mozart’s wife’s name
Mozart info
• Born in Salzburg
• Died in Vienna
• German Composer
• Mastered the piano by age 3 and violin by 5
• Composed his first symphony at 9
• Salzburg Symphony No. 1
• 1st Opera at 12
• When he was 16 he attended Allegri’s “Misere” in Rome and was able to go home and write out the entire symphony and corrected the mistakes after he had left the performance
Mozart’s major works
• “Requiem” (Mass for the Dead)
• Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute)
• 626 known works
Romantic Era dates
Romantic Era Characteristics
1. Nationalism (Music reflected country of its origin)
2. Interest in the occult
3. Individualism
4. Another age of the virtuoso
5. Intense emotional expression
6. Loved Nature
7. Beethoven
Who created the transition between Classical Era and the Romanticism? How
Beethoven created the transition between Classical era and Romanticism (His early music was purely classical while his later music was purely romantic)
What nationality was Beethoven?
What is the famous quote about Beethoven and who said it?
“We all stand in the shadow of Beethoven” by Wagner
Beethoven’s works to know
“5th symphony”
(the hand of fate knocking at the door) –“I will take fate by the throat and I will shake it.” –Beethoven

Symphony #9 Ode to Joy

What as Beethoven like as a person?
Stormy, isolated, emotional person. Beaten by father who forced him to play music.
Who was his first instructor?
Haydn was his 1st instructor in Vienna who instantly recognized Beethoven’s genius
Beethoven’s life story
Beethoven doesn’t work well with people, he is mostly alone and sad about this, he’s unkept, he never cleans himself or his apartment but did well financially. At 29 he went deaf which calmed him down a little and he moved to the country to try and regain his hearing.At one point he realizes he won’t get his hearing back so he gets depressed and wants to commit suicide. He writes a letter to his brother and during the middle a remarkable change happens. He writes the above quote about fate and throws himself back into music.
i. At this time he writes his 5th Symphony
ii. After he writes Symphony #9
1. Schiller wrote a poem called Ode to Joy which Beethoven used as lyrics in Symphony #9 during the choral movement.