Galant Style
popular after baroque period; a simplification of music- less polyphony, less ornamentation, smaller ensembles, etc.
second part of the 18th century, beginning of the classical style. centered in Vienna, Austria. led by king Joseph II
Joseph II
emperor of austria during the Enlightenment, ruled from 1780 to 1790
half party, half seminar: a gathering in a rich lady’s home where important people discussed music, art, ideas, and rich people things.
Public Concert
concerts in public (duh), usually paid for by subscriptions, commonly run for charities. first concert hall in 1748
Jean-Jaques Rousseau
writer, composer, music copyist. first “alienated interllectual” he believed that social institutions stifled the individual
opera buffa
Italian comic opera – joseph II enjoyed
sonata form
form of the first movement of a symphony
exposition, development, recapitulation
A B A’
main material of the movement is presented
two themes and a cadence theme
first theme
the first theme in an exposition, in the tonic key
where the modulation takes place
The Marriage of Figaro
Mozart opera
based off of a french play that was banned because of anti-aristocrat sentiments
an ensemble for 2 singers (it’s a DUET)
Beetoven’s replacement for the minuet
a fast movement in triple meter
italian for joke
the movement in the l800’s of striving for a better, more perfect state of being.
insulting word for the romantics- lived irregularly, wore odd clothes, the “image” of the eccentric artist
flexible rhythm, literally tempo rubato means robbed time
a compositional style that uses all 12 pitches commonly
program music
instrumental music written in association with a poem, story, or literary source- the story is the program, and the music goes along with it
pieces lasting less than a few minutes. usually written for piano or voice, they were written to convey a specific emotion
thematic transformation
taking a theme and adding new versions and peppering it throughout the piece. usually not very similar, but the theme is still there
idee fixe
obsession- the musical theme that represented the composers’ beloved
second theme
the second main theme in exposition of sonata form, which occurs after the modulation
closing/cadence theme
last theme in the second group (after the bridge), constructed to end solidly.
usually marked by loud repeated cadences
second section of sonata form
increases tension by quick modulation and repeating themes with change after change
last modulation of the development, returns to tonic.
last section of sonata form
the first theme followed by all the other themes and elements of the exposition, with no modulation
extra final section in sonata form
in the tonic key
used to wrap up the movement
ludwig von kochel
the person who catalogued all of mozart’s compositions, K *** 1862
theme and variations
form of the second movement of a symphony (the slow movement)
double-exposition form
form for the classical concertos, follows sonata form only with 2 expositions- orchestral and solo exposition. kind of like a cross between sonata and ritornello forms. bridge is in the solo exposition
string quartet
genre for 2 violins, a viola, and a cello.
a string quartet was similar to a symphony- 4 movements with the same forms as a symphony
a composition for one or two instruments
not performed in concerts, but usually for the family and friends
minuet (and trio) form
form of a symphony’s third movement
also called ternary form
ABA (B is the trio)
classical dance form
ternary form
another name for the minuet and trio form
form of a symphony’s third movement
rondo form
4th movement of a symphony
much more complicated than former rondos (eg. LeBrun’s sonata in F)
A= a little tune, B,C, etc. are spacers for the tune
orchestral exposition
first section in double-exposition form
no soloist, no change of key
solo exposition
second section in double-exposition form
soloist is main listening object
bridges to new key
chamber music
music designed to be played in a smaller room, not meant as much for concerts as for intimate gatherings
A number (in opera) sung by two or more people. literally an ensemble of performers singing.
program symphony
symphonies with programs spelled out movement by movement
character piece
short romantic-era piano pieces that portray a mood or “character”
each one is a distinct emotion
a type of german song that flourished in the 19th century, a “miniature” genere
literally german for “song”
all lieder share: piano accompaniment, text from poetry, and a distinct mood
“night piece”
a piano piece featuring a striking tune, usually related to the night
concert overture
a piece with a literary theme in mind, not intended to be a play or an opera. usually “overture to ___”
Felix Mendelssohn
only composer to come from an upper class family; jewish
popular composer of concert overtures
Fanny Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn’s older sister
also a composer
performed weekly concerts at her family’s home
very little of her music released to the public, a victim of anti-women sentiment
Franz Liszt
learned music from his father on the esterhazy estate (haydn’s workplace)
met beetoven at his first piano performance when he was 11
banged a lot of famous and important women
piano virtuoso
fan of Wagner’s
wrote symphonic poems
bel canto
“beautiful song”
popularized by Gioacchino Rossini
bel canto opera is italian romantic opera
“total work of art”
Wagner’s name for his music dramas, such as The Nibelung’s Ring
music drama
the more common name for Wagner’s operas.
Less about the music and more about a combination of it with poetry, drama, philosophy, acting, and stage design
“guiding/leading motive”
musical motive associated with a person, thing, idea, or symbol in the drama. Wagner used leitmotivs and their development to develop the story in his music droma
Der Ring des Nibelungen
english- “the Nibelung’s Ring”
Wagner’s largest music drama/Gesamptkunsterwerk
4 sections that take place over 4 nights – Das Rheingold, The Valkyrie, Siegfried, Gotterdammerung (twilight of the gods)
Music for the country
incorporated national folk music into concert pieces
ex. great gate at kiev has 2 russian folk songs in it
with nationalism came audiences who wanted to hear music of other countries
ex. Puccini Madame Butterfly (Italian writing about a Japanese woman)
symphonic poem
one-movement orchestral composition with a program
free musical form
Mighty Five
russian “kuchka”
5 russian nationalist composers
only 1 trained musician (mily Balakirev (1837-1910) with Alexander Borodin (1833-1887, Cesar Cui (1835-1918), Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), and Modest Musorgsky (1839-1881)
New German School
Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt
composers weren’t actually german, but followed in Beetoven’s footsteps
Poete maudit
an artist who lives outside of society
biography usually includes drug abuse, insanity, crime, and an early death