Rupert Neve

  • Known for Work on Preamps, EQs, Large format mixing consoles
  • Served in British corp WWII and folowwing opend PA and mobile recording
  • opened company that operated out of his own estate
  • Developed 1t Transistorized recording console for Phillips
  • Created Solid State switching Matrix
  • NECAM(Neve computer assistant mix down system)1st automated moving fader system.

Magical Mystery Tour

  • Produced by Martin with Emrick at the controls,
  • has strong examples of Martins influence on the groups production style,
  • with lush classical compositions and comedic use of vocals and sound effects

White Sessions

  • Brian Epstein died in 1967
  • Double album so strenuous that Emerick resigned
  • Martin made himself scarce because of bad blood between group
  • Removal of the kick head and use of towels on drums



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Recording Studios

  • Undergo some major transformations
  • changes from performance capture to creation
  • FM radio is becoming very popular with AOR(Album oriented rock and roll

Bill Putnam

  • One of the fathers of modern recording technology
  • Cue sends, Multiband EQ,Iso Booth for vocals
  • Founded UniversalRecording Corparation and Universal Audion
  • Recorded first song to use artificial reverb
  • Urged by clients to Move to Hollywood and did so with backing of Frank sinatra, records clients as well ass film and tv buys western recorders  and renames Unite Western recorders also opened up parallell UREI United Recording Electrical Industries  rename of Universal Audion
  • Aquired National Inertel and renamed Teletronix put out LA 2A

Solid State Logic




  • Founded in Oxfod, England
  • Started as solid state control systems for pipe organs
  • 1st inline recording console with integrated mix computer



  • Mic Developer
  • Developed phantom power 1965
  • 1st Transistorized condensor mic 1965(KTM)


  • SM57 best selling mic in the world been used as lectern mic for every president since Lyndon Johnson
  • Sm58 becomes most popular vocal mic

MTR Advances

  • Anmpex and 3M(minnesota mining and manufacturing company) develope 16 track in 1969
  • Studer introduces 24 track and then introduces A-800 wich is 1st micro processor controlled MTR

Processing & Effects

  • Vox creates wah pedal
  • Lexicon is founded and introduces digital delay
  • EMT developes 1st digital reverb device (EMT 250)

Al Schmitt

  • Legendary producer recorded and mixed over 150 gold and platinum records
  • Began as engineer>producer>back to engineer
  • Apprentice to Tom Dowd at Apex Studios
  • Used meticulous mic documentation to jumpstart his career
  • Focused on mic placement,avoids eq/comp in when tracking, rep for being cool headed under pressure, prioritized sightlines and artist confidence
  • Known to use Omni Overheads

Early Precursors to Hard Rock

  • Began in 60s Kinks “you really got me now” popularized a more raw guitar tone
  • Artist would Jump amps, put slits in or punch speaker cones
  • Advances in the Amplifies by Jim Marshall and effect technology helped facilitate a harder sound

American Beginnings

  • SF band Blue Cheer covering “Summertime Blues” considered to be the 1st true heavy metal recording
  • Iron Butterfly “In Gadda Da Vida”

British Early Success

  • Lead Zeppelins 2nd album “whole lotta love” went to #4 was 1st major chart success of hard rock song/album
  • Black Sabbaths 1970 releases were crucial to the beginnings of metal, early example of guitar detuning
  • Deep purple,OFO,Uriah Heep Judas Priest
  • AC/DC Australia

Production of the 70s

  • Growth of the Indie producer
  • Era marked by overproduction, exploding budgets and extreme self indulgence
  • Acts put emphasis on stage show and theatrics

Jimmy Page



  • Produced all of Led Zep records
  • Began as session player for Decca records
  • Focuses on distant mic placement “distance equals depth”
  • Prefers mic placement to signal processing
  • purposley utilized different engineers between records so he would be credited with great sound

When the Levee breaks Production

  • Drums recorded at the bottom of the stairwell with 2 mics at the top of stairs, compressed and processed with delay
  • small guitar am miced with 1 close 1 far
  • entire song was slowed down during mixdown
  • processed the vocals differently on each verse

Rodger Bain

  • very Collabrative producer didnt get along with bands well
  • tracked bands live in the studio
  • heavy hand on productions, black sabath, judas priest

Robert Mutt Lange

  • Zambia africa
  • produced boomtown rats, ACDC highway to hell/back in black
  • rep stack guitars, large amounts of takes during production pusheing the bands limits


Considered to be the 1st New wave of British Heavy Metal band to bridge the Punk/metal divide

Formed by lenny Kilmeister

Thrash Metal

Emerged in SF bay Area

Fast tempos, aggresive playing with low register riffs

Lyrics are negative


Death Metal


Spawned out of Florida

Downtuned guitars, extremely fast percussion, vocal growls, time sig changes

Doom Metal


Influenced by black sabbath

Slower tempos, clean vocals


Metal Core

Hybrid of metal and hardcore punk

Dissonant guitars, vocals screamed on chorus and clean on verses

Garth Richardson

Canadian Metal/rock producer/engineer

Red hot chili pep, rage,mudvayne

Known for being a joker in the studio in a positive way

huge guitar sound and bass tone

Ross Robinson

American producer the godfather of Nu matal


Velvet Underground & New York Dolls
Major influenced to the future punk new wave and glam metal scenes
First wave of Punk NYC
Television was instrumental in makin CBGB(country blue grass and blues) and OMFUG(other music for uplifting Gormadizers) a hot bed of punk rock music as well as Max’s Kansas City
Pattie Smith
Worked with Tom Verlaine of television to record Hey joe/piss factory which is considerd to be the first true punk record in terms of her DIY attitude

Out of Queens NY

Performed at CBGB nearly 80 times

Considered 1st true punk rock band

1st Wave of Punk in England

Sex pistols release “Nevermins the Bollocks”

The Damned and the Clash

Transformation of Punk Rock
Original punk movement was shortlived and it spill off into different genres which much of modern rock and roll can be linked to
Hip Hop

A musical Genre ; a cultural phenomenon the term was first used musically by Kieth Cowboy of Grandmaster Flash ; furious 5

Key stylistic elements djing,sampling,rapping,beatboxing

Afrika Babaataa


High ranking member of gang Black spades until trip africa changed his life

Founded Universal Zulu Nation and began steering youth away from crime and into Hip Hop he coined the term and is one of 1st Djs to incorporate electronic beats into the sound

African and Jamaican Roots

Western African Griot tradition- story tellers use spoken word over musical accompanyment

Introduced in the US through slave trade “doin the dozens” rap battle styles

Jamaican “toasting” block parties with pre recorded beats and lyrical chanting, King Tubby- created the 1st vocal less dub plates for djs to toast with

Bronx Begginings

Clive Cambell Jamaican would cut back between 2 copies of a record to extend the break for rappers

Grand wizard theodore the inventor of scratching and needle techniques

Rappers Delight

Sugar Hill Gang- 1st hip hop album to experience exposure


80s hip hop expansion

Tracks consisting entirely of sampled material are introduced

Run DMC releases King of Rock

Grand master flash and Furious 5- The message” 1st example of conscious rap

Old school VS New School
New school went away from the Disco/funk andcreated shorter songs that were more radio friendly
Golden age of Hip Hop

Mid 80s to Mid 90s exploded

Heavy use of Jazz, soul, and R&b sampling in songs, clear movement from tape based looped production to sampler based

Marked an Increase in black consciousness based lyrics(public enemy, De la soul)

Def Jam

Rick Rubin and Russel Simmons

produced LL cool J, Public enemy, Beastie Boys

Gangsta Rap

Developed out of the West Coast

Ice t’s 6 in the mornin

Schooly d’s PSK

Straight outta compton by NWA was the 1st Gangsta rap album to enjoy success

Death Row

Dr Dre The Chronic on Death row Records was a departure from the sample and break heavy sound of the past

west coast dominance of rap