instrumental work; piano and cakewalks; best selling insrument msuic in early 1900s
style of music that evolved into a diverse tradition encompassing styles, genres, etc.
Mix of rags, cakewalk, and blues
couples dance derrived from slave dances; marked by strutting and acrobatic movements
style popular from 1890s to 1910s; featured syncopated “ragged” rhythm against a regular “marchlike” bass
featured songs and dance in style of popular music; spoken dialogue; romantic themed comedy usually
composed by Scott Joplin in 1899; 2/4 meter; follows the form of a march; syncopation
Maple Leaf Rag
leading ragtime composer; lived 1867-1917; most ambitious work was Treemonisha; wrote maple leaf rag
Scott Joplin
leading austro-German composer of symphonies; and one of the great masters of the song for voice and orchestra; made living as a conductor
Gustav Mahler
Mahler, orchestral song cycle on poems of Friedrich Ruckert; titled “songs on the death of children”
late mahler work, rivals 9th symphony; song cycle for tenor and alto soloists with orchestra based on poems translated from chinese; titled “the song of the earth”
das lied von der Erde
contemporary of Mahler, established himself as an operettist, and wrote symphonic poems
Richard Strauss
opera by Strauss; 1905; setting of a one-act paly by Oscar Wilde in German translation; about step-daughter of Herod
strauss opera, adapted from a play by sophocles; dwells on the emotions of insane hatred and revenge
strauss opera; sunnier world of elegant, stylized eroticism and tender feeling in the aristocratic powdered-wig milieu of 18th ce. Vienna; titled “the Cavalier of the Rose”
Der Rosenkavalier
What are particular characteristics of Mahler’s symphonies?
“programmatic”–ambivalent in nature because he withdrew some of his progrmas, long and complex, personal statements
Orchestra–large orchestra, uses instruments together in diffferent ways
Spatial arrangements
Frech composer, took direction towards pleasure in the moment; drew from French tradition a preference for sensibility, taste, and restraint; often considered impressionist, but closer to symbolism
Claude Debussy
based on a symbolist poem by Malarme; evokes mood through suggestion, connotation, and indirection rather than through intense emotional expression, titled “Prelude to ‘The Afternoon of a Faun'”
Prelude a “l’apres-midi d’un faune”
represents Debussy’s orchestral technique; collection of three pieces” nuages (clouds), fetes (festivals), and sirenes (sirens).
Debussy’s one opera; written in response to Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde; made his reputation when it premiered at the Paris Opera Comique
Pelleas et Melisande
composer often grouped with Debussy, as an impressionist; better called superb assimilater; music encompasses variety of influences
Maurice Ravel
ballet by Ravel; invoked impressionism in its strong musicla imagery, brilliant instrumental technique and colorful harmonies
Daphnis et Chloe
spanish composer; developed a diverse nationalism that reisted the merely exotic; lots of folk influence
Manuel de Falla
english composer; nationalist; collected and published hundreds of folk songs, leading to the use of these melodies in many compositions; also inspired by english hymnody and tallis and purcell
Ralph Vaughan Williams
english composer not only influenced by english music, but by hindu sacred texts;
gustav holst
Ravel’s famous orchestral rumination on a single idea varied by changes on instrumentation and a gradual crescendo
holst’s most famous work; orchestral suite
the planets
one of Vaughan Williams’ most popular works for double string orchestra and string quartet; based on a Tallis hymn in Phrygian mode
Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis
Czech nationalist composer; worked in the genres of western art music, especially opera, but was known for specifically nationialist style
Leos Janacek
Finnish composer; raised speaking sweedish , became a committed finnish patriot; leading composer in 1890s in Finland
Jean (Johan) Sibelius
most famous (and political) of Sibleius’ works; orchestral piece–symphonic poem
russian composer; made his living as a pianist; left russia after the revolution; came to US; virtuoso pianist and composer
Sergi Rachmaninov
work for piano and orchestra; rachmaninov; “a salute from one great virtuoso to another”
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini
russian composer; began writing nocturnes, preludes, etudes and mazurkas; in the manner of chopin; gradually evolved a complex harmonic vocabulary all his own
Alexander Scriabin
Scriabin work; one-movement “poem” for piano; titled “Towards the flame”
Vers la flamme
style of music that embraces all the new ways composers found to organize pitch, from atonality to neotonality
French term; artists who saw themselves as vanguard exploring new territory
French composer; one of the avant-garde; wrote several piano works; very french in humor, witty etc.
Erik Satie
three pieces by satie; challenged the
Romantic notions of expressivity and individuality.
“realistic ballet” by Satie; scenario by Jean Cocteau, choreography by Leonide Massine, scenery and constumes by Picasso; introduced cubism to the stage
group of italians who rejected tradtional instruments and pitches; built new instruments called intuonarumori
french composers; used neo-classicism
les six
french composer, of the the six; excelled in music of dynamic action, graphic gesture and expressed in short-breathed melodies, etc.
Arthur Honneger
work by honneger; translation into msuic of the visual and physical impression of a speeding locomotive
pacific 231
french composer wrote many differnet kinds of music: ballet, film music, chamber; loved jazz music
Darius Milhaud
ballet depicting the creation of the world, milhaud; saxophones, ragtime syncopations and the blues featured
La creation du monde
French composer; drew especially on parisian popular chanson tradition sustained in cabarets and revues
Francis Poulenc
Opera by Poulenc about the Carmelite nuns during the French revolution
Dialogues of the Carmelites
Opera by Poulenc about the Carmelite nuns during the French revolution
Dialogues of the Carmelites
movement that opposed complexity and promoted the use of familiar elements, borrowing from popular music and jazz or classical or baroque
New Objective
leading composer in the new objective movement
eric krenek
opera composer in Berlin; supporter of new objectivity; sympathetic to the political left, sought to bring social commentary and to entertain the everyday people
Kurt Weill
most famoous collaboration between Weill and Brecht; based on the Beggar’s Opera by john gay; titled in german “die dreigroschenoper”
threepenny opera
style of music that was high in quality, modern in style and challenging yet rewarding to perform
among the most prolific composers of the century, taught two generations of musicians; performed as a violinist, violist and conductor, inventor or gebrachsmusik
paul hindemith
opera by hindemith and symphony by hindemith, about mathias the painter during the protestant reformation
mathis der maler
german composer who won internation reputation during the nazi era
carl orff
best known orff work
carmina burana
fairly consonant chords progress toward combinations containing greater tension and dissonance, which are then resolved either suddenly or by slowly moderating the tenstion until the consonance is again reached
harmonic fluctuation
doctrine that called for using a realistic style in works that portrayed socialism in a positive light
socialist realism
made initaal rep. as a radical modernist; at the low point of his career, he succumbed to promises from the soviet regime of comissions an d performances
sergei prokofiev
soviet composer who was more aligned with the modernist than the proletarian wing in Russia
Dimitri Shostakovich
opera by Shostakovich; premiered in 1934 in Leningrad and Moscow; Stalin saw it in 1936 and was angered by its discordant modernist music and surrealist, often grotesque, portrayal of violence and sex
Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District
music that avoids establishing any note as a tonal center
nothing is repeated, absolutely
german composer committed to continuing the german classical tradition; felt compelled to move beyon atonality and to the 12-tone method
arnold schoenberg
anything that is presumed dissonant is not consonant; coined by schoenberg
emancipation of the dissonance
collection of pitch classes
one of the 12 notes in teh scale and its enharmonic equivalent, in any octave
the appearance of all 12 pitch-classes within a segment of music
chromatic saturation
uses exaggerated gestures, angular melodies, and unrelenting dissonance to convey the tortured emotions of the protagonist
speak singing
a form of atonality based on systematic orderings of the 12 notes of the chromatic scale
12-tone method
cycle of 21 songs drawn from a larger poetic cycle by the belgian symboligist power albert giraud; schoenberg
pierrot lunaire
part of 12 tone method where 12 pitch classes are arranged in an order chosen by the composer and producing a particular sequence of intervals
row or series
original order of a row
backwards order of a row
inversion or retrograde order
last way of ordering a row
retrograde inversion
the first six or last six notes in a row
composer who studies with schoenberg; listeners found his music more approachable than schoenberg’s; secret was fusing the post-tonal idiom no only with the forms and procedures of tonal music, but also with its expressive gesutres, characteristic styles
Alban Berg
opera by Berg; libretto presents a soldier as a hapless victim of his environment, despised by his fellow men…etc.
piano work by schoenberg; illustrates some of schoenberg’s methods
the piano suite
studied with schoenberg; believed that music involved the presentation of ideas that can be expressed in no other way; that great art does what is necessary, not arbitrary; argued that 12tone method was the result of musics evoltution
Anton Webern
work by Berg; designed in interlocking minor and major triads, marked with square brackets
Violin Concerto
schoenbergs concept of tone-color melody; changes of tone color are perceived as parallel to changing pitches in a melody
russian composer; started as a nationalist and became a cosmopolitan; most important composer of his time; created an individual voice by developing several style traits, most derrived from Russian traditions
Igor Stravinsky
stravinsky ballet based on russian folk tales; stems from russian nationalist tradition and especially from the exoticism of Rimsky-Korsokov
The Firebird
stravinsky ballet; uses several style traits closely identfied with stravinsky; depicts a fair/carnival in st. petersburg
stravinsky ballet that solidfies his distinctive stle; takes place in prehistoric russia; uses folk melodies and primitivism
the rite of spring
a deliberate representation of the elemental, crude, and uncultured
a broad movement from 1910s to 1950s in which composers revived, imitated, or evoked the styles, genres, and forms of pre-romantic music, especially that of the 18th century, then called classical
symphony by stravinsky; uses neoclassicism and its continuity; mixed chorus and orchestra on the psalms of the latin vulgate bible
symphony of psalms
the composer is finding new ways to establish a single pitch as a tonal center
music that is based on a series that was no longer simply 12tone; applied to schoenberg and his students
serial music
austro-hungrian composer; trained as a pianist; searched for inately hungarian music–collected and studies peasant music etc.
Bela Bartok
bartok work that illustrates his synthesis and several characteristics of his personal style; four movements
Music for strings, percussion and celesta
American composer; grew up surrounded by american music; fluent composer in four different spheres: american vernacular music, Protestant church music, european classical music, and experimental music
charles ives
music that preserves most of the traditional rules but changes others to see what would happen
experimental music
music that has the melody in one key and the accompaniment in another, or with four imitative voices, each in its own key
piano pieces by bartok, in six books of graded difficulty; work of pedagogical value and summarizes bartok’s own style, and presents in microcosm the development of european music in the first third of the 20th ce.
orchestra piece that made bartok widely known
concerto for orchestra
music that is woven together like a patchwork quilt
form in which principal theme appears in its entirety only at the end of a work, proceded by its development
cummulative form
the study of music from different ethnicities
most important brazilian composer; drew together traditional brazilian elements with modernist techniques; wrote “choros”
heitor villa-lobos
first composer associated witht he new nationalist movement in mexico; conductor of mexico’s first orchestra and director of the national conservatory
Carloe Chavez
composer who studied in mexico and then in america; returned to mexico as assistant under carlos chavez; doesn’t use folk songs, but combine mexican folk and popular on a modernist idiom
silvestre revueltas
french-born composer, moved to new york in 1915; celebrated his adopted country in his first major work, Ameriques; messed around with sound masses and spatial music
edgar varese
a body of sounds characterized by a particular timbbre, register, rhythm, and melodic structure
sound mass
tape piece by varese; played at world fair in brussels
poeme electronique
american modernist composer, associated with the piano and used extended-techniques; traiditonal instruments and untraditional ways (i.e. played the piano as a harp etc.)
Henry Cowell
chords of diatonic or chromatic seconds produced by pressing the keys with the fist or arm
tone clusters
varese for percussion only
work by cowell where assitant hold down the damper pedal so that the strings can resonate freely while the pianist strums the strings
the banshee
female composer, american; most active as a composer in Chicago and New York; married musicoligist Charles (no last name, cheater!); stands out for preserving american traditional music and for being one of the only women in the ultramodernist group
ruth crawford seeger
composer who moved from stringent dissonance in the 20s to a streamlined style in 30s and 40s that combined modernism with national american idioms
aaron copland
work that exemplifies Copland’s americanist idiom; first written as a ballet, but known for the orchestral suite;
Appalachian Spring
Composer who wrote the first symphonic work by an African american; used specifically American idioms into art music
William Grant Still
the first symphony to be composed by an African American
Afro-american symphony
composer and a critic known for his wittiness for the New York Herald Tribune; strongly influence by Erik Satie; rejected moderism and its complexities and obsessed with classical tradition
virgil thompson
application of serial technique to other parameters
total serialism
technique used by eliot carter; transition is made from one meter to another, gradually
metric modulation
method used prominently by john cage; piano in certain condition before being played
prepared piano
fixed music on tape
musique concrete
music that is performed how the music is supposed to sound, created by chance, then it is determined
every performance is going to be different; cannot be determined
impromptu performance; an established time and place
location in West Germany where music was taught to people after the war; supported by the US occupying forces
one of the best-known composers of the Darmstadt group; leading serial composer in the united states
Milton Babbit
former pupil of Babbit; inspired to write the first European work of total serialism; relaxed the rigidity of total serialism
pierre boulez
italian composer; wrote pieces of music for the new virtuosos
Luciano Berio
series of works by Berio; unaccompanied solo piece for any instrument, from flute to accordian and each was composed for a different perfomers
american composer who wrote virtuoso music; used a complex, nonserial style characterized by innovations in rhythm and form; developed metric modulation
Elliot Carter
american composer; showed great influence and longevity in his career; sought to bring into music sounds, approaches, and ideas that previously had been excluded
john cage
cage’s best-known work for prepared piano, consisting of 26 sonatas and four interludes
sonatas and interludes
composer who has been most imaginative in coaxing new sounds out of ordinary instruments
george crumb
undertook an individualistic, single-minded search for new sonic media. He repudiated equal temperament and Western Harmony and counterpoint to seek a wholly new system inspired partly by the chinese
harry partch
string quartet piece by crumb; electronically amplified to produce surrealistic dreamlike juxtapositions
black angels
candadian-american composer who transcribed the gamelan music from far esat for western instruments
colin mcphee
composer who often used recoreded sounds alongside electronic ones
karlheinz stockhausen
first major electronic piece to use mutliple tracks, played in concert through several loudspeakers placed various places relative to the audience
Gesang der Junglinge
combined interests in just intonation and inventing new instruments, inspired by Partch, with enthusiasm for the music of asia
lou harrison
asian composer writing music in the european classical tradition; best-known of this genre
toru takemitsu
work by Babbit; soprano soloists with a tape that includes altered recorded fragments of the singer as well as the electronic sounds
one of the first to write music that sounded electronic, for acoustic instruments; greek who lived in france
iannis xenakis
one of the best-known pieces based on texture and process; by penderecki; score gives few definite pulses or note values
threnody: to the victims of hiroshima
polish composer; based a lot of his music on texture and process
krzysztof penderecki
hungarian composer; musc achieved world renown through stanley kubricks film 2001: a space odyssey
gyorgy ligeti
one of ligeti’s most famous pieces; beings with 56 muted strings, together with a selection of woodwinds and horns, playing simultaneously all the chromatic notes through a 5 octave range
piece used in 2001: a space odyssey; by ligeti
lux aeterna
cage piano piece; ooke its name from the chinese book of prophecy; devised charts of possible sounds, dynamics, durations, and tempos and used the method from the chinese book, to select which were to be used
music of changes
piece in which performer or performers sit silently at their instruments for a span of time specified in the title
polish composer who made selective use of interdeterminacy, while insisting on his authorship of the entire composition
witold lutoslawski
samples of existing music
collection of multiple quotations
american composer; written mostly serial music, found it inadequate to express his feelings on the death of his son in 1964
george rochberg
piece for harpsichord; commentary on Bach’s keyboard partita no. 6 in e minor; fragments of the bach altered to varying degrees, emerge from Rochberg’s own atonal music to create a dialogue between the two composers
Nach Bach
piece by lukas foss; three movements subject pieces by handel, scarlatti and bach
baroque variations
composer who composed the baroque variations and many other quotation music
lukas foss
one of the richest pieces based on borrowed material; thrid movement in particular; Berio incorporated most of the scherzo movement of mahler’s 2nd symphony and superimposed a musical commentary by a large orchestra
dominant figure in the musical theater scene; musicals include plotless social commentary, melodrama, murder etc.
Stephen Sondheim
new invention; synthesis, recording and reproduction of sound; given creators of music new tools and listeners new flexibility
a process of creating new compositions by patching together digital chunks of previously recorded music
differnt forms of art coming together in one genre
mixed media
has written many movie scores, still does, star wars, indiana jones, jurassic park
john williams
materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures simplified so that what is going on in the music is immediately apparent
experimented with tape loops, short segments of magnetic tape spliced into loops that when fed through a tape recorder play the same recorded sounds again and again
terry riley
riley piece; can be performed by any number of people; each palying in the same series of beief repeated figures over a quickly pusing octave C
In C
developed a quasi-canonic procedure in which musicians play the same material out of phase with each other.
steve reich
the art of looping tapes, out of sync at different lengths
work where reich uses two pianos, both piansts repeat the same figure in unison several times then one pulls ahead an 8th note etc.
piano phase
setting of psalm texts in the original hebrew for four singers and orchestra; reich piece
published 20 works by the time he earned his degrees ; withdrew them all; emphasized melodiousness, consonance and the simple harmonic progressions and abundant amplification of rock music
Philip Glass
one-act, four-and-a-half-hour opera by Glass;
Einstein on the Beach
traced a path from minimalism to a personal style that blends minimalist techniques with a variety of other approaches
john adams
adams piece for piano; representative of the period when minimalism was move beyonf its avant-garde origins to become a style rather than an aesthetic
phrygian gates
opera by adams about the first american to visit china to open political relations back up with them
nixon in china
first woman to win a pullitzer prize her first symphony
ellen taaffe wxilich
Estonian composer; forged a highly individual, instantly recognizable style using simplest materials.
arvo part
piece by part; exeplifies the tintinnabuli after the bell-like sonorities it produced
seven magnificent antiphones
turning away from the belief, crucial to modernist thought, that history progresses inrreversibly in one direction
a combination of new and older styles created through quotation or stylistic allusion
composer who quoted from and borrowed past styles effectively; worked in the soviet union; known for his film music; moved to germany in 1990
alfred schnittke
American composer; frequently juxtaposes styles to convey meanings, drawing on stylstic continuum from baroque to classic to avant-garde; red violin soundtrack
john corigliano
the wittiest and most popular composer to use quotation and stylistic allusion
peter schickele
schickele’s disguised character; supposed youngest son of J.S. Bach; spoof of old music
P.D.Q. Bach
the final idiom of 19th century Romanticism or incorporated its sounds and gestures
piece that is scored for amplified soprano and orchestra, with a “folk group” of banjo, mandolin, accordian, and two soprano saxophones
final alice
five movements of her sonata for violin and cello, inspired by 18th ce devotional texts