Ctesibius of Alexandria
the invention of the hydraulis
Why did Constantius send an organ to Pepin?
as a peace offering
Main use of the organ in first 1000 years
About what did monk Wulfstan report regarding an organ in Winchester Cathedral?
its volume
What organ development occurred throughout the 12th century?
it grew in populuarity
15th-century developments
1. well established in religious setting throughout Europe
2. played for festival occasions and in alternation with choir
3. large in size
An important late 15th-century development that expanded the versatility of the block-work organ
Significance of upper Rhineland organs of c1510-20
first to incorporate features still found in modern organs
Mirror of the organbuilder (1511)
Arnolt Schlick
The Art of the Organist (1608)
Costanzo Antegnati
Syntagma Musicum (1619)
Michael Praetorius
Joseph Echevarria’s organ (1659)
horizontal reeds
Date of Oliver Cromwell’s Puritan movement that resulted in the destruction of many church organs
What resulted from the Parisian Ceremonial (1662)?
many books of organ pieces
First French organ book (1667)
Alexandre Thierry (1685)
a large organ in Paris (St. Gervais)
Organ builder for St. Jacob’s Church in Hamburg (1689-93)
Arp Schnitger
Andreas Werckmeister (1698)
a book on evaluating organs
Organ builder for Freiberg Cathedral (1710-14)
Gottfried Silbermann
Forerunner of the 19th-century expressive Swell division (1712)
Abraham Jordan
Organ builder for Castle Church in Altenburg that Bach approved (1739)
H. G. Trost
Organ builder for St. Wenceslas Church in Naumberg that Bach and Silbermann approved (1746)
Zacharias Hildebrandt
Organ builder for Catholic Hofkirche in Dresden (1753)
Gottfried Silbermann
Dom Bedos (1766-78)
a treatise on organ building
Treatise in German organ building practice at the time of Bach (1768)
Jacob Adlung
Published a treatise on organ building (1789), built the organ for Poitiers Cathedral (1790), and died (1790)
F.-H. Clicquot
Theories on the “simplification” of organs (1798)
George Joseph Vogler
Organ builder whose 1841 organ contributed new tonal and mechanical concepts
Aristide Cavaille-Coll
The Organ: Its History and Construction (1855)
Hopkins and Rimbault
America’s first large concert organ for Boston Music Hall (1863)
Ernst Sauer (1889)
large organ for St. Thomas church, Leipzig
Ernest M. Skinner (1901)
founded an organ building company
George Ashdown Audsley (1905)
two-volume publication, The Art of Organ Building
1926 marks “the beginning of the end” of this facet of the organ world
the theater organ
Albert Schweitzer’s article topic (1927)
organ reform
G. Donald Harrison’s most important contribution
“American Classic” style of organ building
Walter Holtkamp (1933)
first Ruckpositiv to be built in the United States in the 20th century
Significance of the Aeolean-Skinner organ for Church of the Advent in Boston (1934)
American Classic style
What development did the organ world experience in the early 1940s?
destruction of organs in Europe
What type of organ was installed in Trinity Lutheran Church in Cleveland (1957)?
von Beckerath organ from Germany
A “first” by Andover Organ Company (1963)
restored an electric action to tracker
Significance of Peter Williams’ book (1966)
first modern study of historic organs
Features common between three 1981 college organs: Augustana, Oberlin, Wellesley
1. 17th-century style
2. mean-tone temperament