*Emphasizes melody above rhythm
*Reflected the increase (though still limited) commercial possibilities for black music
*Star groups of time: The Platters, The Coasters, The Drifters
*Grew out of urban setting (mainly East Coast)
*Many “one hit wonder” groups
* Doo-wops was the domain of innocent teenage love
The Roots of Doo-wop
*1930’s- Mills Brothers
*Inspired younger groups to a polished sound in a more R direction
The Ink Spots
The Orioles & The Ravens
Early R&B Doo-wop important transition groups
The Platters
One of the most successful crossover acts in the 1950’s
The Teenagers (Frankie Lymon)
*Featured 13-year old singing artist Frankie Lymon
*Biggest hit: Why Do Fools Fall in Love
The One Shots
*Few doo-wop groups managed to make it onto the charts or sustain careers
*Many groups became the one hit wonders
*Individuality was earsed by the group
Styles that began developing in the 1960’s
*R&B was pushing toward soul
*Motown was rising in Detroit
*Phil Spector on the west coast
*Surf music rose out of Cali
*Teen Idols were creased in the Brill Building of NY
Neo-Doo-Wops (early 60’s)
*Two leading Neo-doo-wop groups of the 1960′: the Coasters and the Drifters
*Both groups affiliated with jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller
Jerry Leiber & Mike Stoller
*Great songwriting of the 50’ss
*The “Rogers and Hart” of R
*Paved the way for the Brill Building writers and Phil Spector productions
*1st white writers to compose authentic R
*Helped expand R’s range by incorporating a pop-style emphasis
The Coasters
*Use of Playlets
*”Playlets”- story-song writing style that uses tongue-in-cheek min-dramas full of wit and insight
The Drifters
*Uptown R&B
*Leiber & Stoller turned to the more serious approach compared to Coasters
*Developed a high-tech production style
R&B and the Push Toward Soul
R&R was another name for R&B
Atlantic Records
Premier R&B label of the 1950’s
The Soul Pioneers
*Key element of soul: The influence of gospel music
*Soul mirrored the growing civil rights movement in America
4 leading soul pioneers
*Ray Charles
*Sam Cooke
Jackie Wilson
*James Brown
Ray Charles
*Not really R music
*Drew from the entire spectrum of music
*Church based music (influenced Aretha Franklin/James Brown)
*Ignited R with the impassioned testifying of a southern, Holly Roller revival meeting
Sam Cooke
*Know as the graceful voice in soul music
*Very different from Ray Charles
*Voice is a more floating quality compared to Charles
*Brought his melodic style of gospel to pop sings with graceful ease
Jackie Wilson
*Enormous range and sheer power- great instrument of R
*Sweeping register leaps, rich vibrato, falsetto breaks was his trademark
*Energetic and agile showman
*Used all styles of gospel singing to fuel his spectacular vocal gymnastics
James Brown
*Paved the way for others such as O. Redding, W. Pickett, Sly & the Family Stone
*Known as the Godfather of Soul
*Incredible stage show productions
*Rhythm became everything- all instruments treated like a drum
*Never had a #1 hit on the pop charts
James Brown’s unique sound
*Groove referred to as “the one”
*Highly syncopated rhythms using the choked chord guitar sound
*Broke bass line (early influences for funk music)
The Teen Idols- R&R’s turning point
*Feb 3, 1959 (the death of Buddy Holly)) is considered a turning point
*Most successful teen idol- Bobby Vinton
Brill Building Pop
*Country turned to Top 40 formats
*Songwriters dominated the industry not the singers
Aldon Music Publishing
*A symbol for the popular music in BY
*Pop singers rarely wrote their own music
*Songwriters were usually grouped in pairs (one/music, the other/lyrics)
Neil Sedaka and Howie Greenfield
Less varied in sound since they wre writing for Sedaka
Gerry Goffin and Carole King
*Most prolific hitmakers at Aldon
*Their variety and ability to change with the times kept them in business
Philadelphia and America Bandstand
*City was the msot successful teen idol “machine”
* Engine of the teen idol machine was America Bandstand
*Dick Clark- hot of Bandstand
Bribery of an influential person in exchange for the promotion of a product or service, such that of disc jockeys for the promotion of records
The “Girl Groups”
*A sound and style rather than an individual voice or image
*Success usually linked to a specific producer
*Projected HIS vision rather than the group’s vision
*The music often has an underlying current of sexuality behind the innocence
The Chantels
*Maybe- big hit in 1957
*Important model for the girl groups that followed
The Shirelles
*Patterned themselves after the Chantels
*Bridged doo-wop and uptown NY pop-soul
The Righteous Brothers
Spector’s last great success
The Instrumental Groups (1950’s)
*Usually built on a simple riff
*Rock’s 1st Garage Bands
Duane Eddy
*Developed a style known as “twangy” guitar
*Formed the model for surf band guitarists that followed
1960’s Instrumental Groups (surf music)
*Surf music was primarily an instrumental style
*Lack of vocals necessitated experimenting with sounds on the guitar
*Guitar had virtually disappeared as lead instrument in early 60’s pop
*Reestablished the guitar as a central role in R
The Ventures
*Solidified the 2 guitar/bass/drum line-up
*Not originally a surf band
*Became a favorite with the surf crowd
Dick Dale & the Deltones
*King of the surf guitar
*Dale’s Deltones spawned many garage bands around Southern California
Garage Rock
*Simple, raw form of rock & roll
*Inspired by British Invasion bands
*1st wave of do-it-yourself punk rockers
Louie, Louie- The Kingsmen
*Composed in 1956 by Richard Berry
*1st recorded by Berry’s group, The Pharaohs
*Lifted their version from The Wailers,a Seattle band who missed out on the success of this
*U.S. Congress had a full-scale investigation to find out what smut was in the song
*FBI declared it “incomprehensible at any speed”
Who is Louie?
A Bartender
The Beach Boys
*America’s answer to the Beatles
*Painted a landscape of beach, paradise, hot rods and California girls
*Combination of the Four Freshmen and instrumental surf music
Brain Wilson
*Was the quite genius of the group
*Influenced by Phil Spector’s wall of sound
Pet Sounds (1966)
*Became Brian’s master project
*Critically considered a masterpiece and one of R&R important albums
*A major influence on the Beatles (Sgt. Pepper)
*Wouldn’t It Be Nice shows martial bliss
*Many songs show Wilson’s obsession with isolation and his insecurities