The British Invasion
*The British resurrected the music we ignored
*England’s “James Dean” counterpart- “teddy boys”
Skiffle Music
*A tame brand of pop folk music and traditional jazz (taken from the New Orleans style). This music was popular in England in the mid-fifties.
*King of Skiffle- Lonnie Donegan
Initial Important Facts about The Beatles
*Able to change music history through all facets: musical style, fashion, social behavior
*Can be broken into 3 distinctive periods
The Beatles: The Early Period
*Pop style
*Love songs
*Driving beat/up tempo
The Beatles: The Early Recordings
*4 albums fall in the “Early Period”
*From the beginning, Lennon and McCartney were not equal in writing their songs
*American releases are different from the British releases
The Beatles: The Middle Period
*More acoustic/folk elements (Dylan influence)
*Introspective style emerges
*Individuality more evident
*Social statements in songs
*Next 2 albums: Help! (Aug 1965) & Rubber Soul (Dec 1965)
The Beatles: Music selections from the Middle Period
*You’ve Got To Hide Your Love Away
*We Can Work It Out
*”Bigger than Jesus: Controversy (March 1966)
The Beatles: The Late Period
*Use of studio techniques
*Music more individualized
*More artistic composition
*Added instrumentation
*Drug influenced
*The “White Album” titles The Beatles is ironically the least collaborative album of the group’s output
*The late period includes the last 7 releases: Revolver,Sgt. Pepper,Magical Mystery Tour, Yellow Submarine,The Beatles (White Album), Let It Be, Abbey Road
The Beatles: Music selections from the Late Period
*Tomorrow Never Knows
*Strawberry Fields Forever
*Helter Skelter
*The “butcher Album” Controversy
More interesting facts about The Beatles
*Lennon & McCartney composed many songs that provided other performers with hits
*Many “1st” happened with the Beatles in the studio
*George Martin has been referred to as the 5th Beatle
*Ring Starr is respected by many drummers and musicians for his excellent timekeeping
John Mayall and the Bluesbreakers
Known as the elder Statesman of the British Blues
The Yardbirds
*The starting point for Clapton/Beck/Page
*Early pioneers of psychedelic music
*Known for ad hoc jams (called raves)
*Raves- mix of R with extended guitar/harmonica passages. Blues with a fierce drive to the music
The Animals (Eric Burdon)
2nd only to Rolling Stones in influence among R based bands
*Almost entirely attributed to one man- Berry Gordy
*R music that passed for black and white in sound
*Perfected a gospel-pop fusion
Berry Gordy produced a unique blend of:
1. Stock rock chord progressions
2. Gospel feel (female back-up and call & response)
3. Doo-wop male vocals
4. Solid instrumental back-up
The Motown Formula
*Repeated uses of catchy hood phrase
*Repetition of melodic hooks resulted in familiarity to the mass public
*Produced the “Sound of Young America”
*Studio musician were known as “The Funk Brothers”
The Motown Formula
*Repeated uses of catchy hood phrase
*Repetition of melodic hooks resulted in familiarity to the mass public
*Produced the “Sound of Young America”
*Studio musician were known as “The Funk Brothers”
The Funk Brothers
*The studio musicians who shaped the Motown sound
*Played on more #1 hits than the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Beach Boys and Elvis combined
*The Funk Brothers are documented in the movie Standing in the Shadows of Motown(2000)
Holland – Dozier – Holland
Leading writing team of Motown
Smokey Robinson and the Miracles
*Known for Robinson’s beautiful falsetto voice
*Ballads became the Miracles forte
The Marvelettes
Motown’s only real girl group
Marvin Gaye
*Became one of Motown’s most enigmatic & consistently popular acts
*Stage One (1963-1971)
*Stage Two (1971-1984): Pensive and introspective style
The Temptations
*The finest vocal group in 60’s soul music
*The closest to church and gospel music
Diana Ross & The Supremes
*One of the most important female groups in rock history
*The Supremes music is the purest expression of the Motown sound
The Jackson 5
*Fronted by 10 year old Michael Jackson
*He danced like a miniature James Brown
*J5 transcended all race and age barriers
Rare Earth
*Motown’s premier white rock and soul band
*Motown’s experimental assault on the rock market
*Labeled “Blue-Eyed Soul”
Stevie Wonder
*Most successful artist in Motown’s history
*1st big hit was “Fingertips- Part 2” (age 12)
*1st live recording to hit #1 in rock history
*120 page contract with Motown made business history
Solomon Burke
*Brought a country influence into R&B
*Burke never celebrated a #1 on the pop charts but enjoyed many hits in the R&B charts
Wilson Pickett
*Atlantic’s best-selling southern soul performer
*”In The Midnight Hour”- one of the most successful songs of soul era
Instrumental Soul- Memphis
Formed Brooker T. and the MG’s
Otis Redding
*Skillful at delivering ballads with passion
*Earned a reputation as leasing performer of soul ballads
*His performance at the Monterey Pop Festival gained him a wider audience
Bob Dylan
*Most important American contributor to rock music
*1st poet of the mass media
*2 distinctive time periods: acoustic and electric
*This implies folk and rock are separate- Dylan shows that folk IS rock
*Fusion of country, folk, blues, rock & roll and poetry both ancient and new
*His lyrics have been discussed in English classes
Bob Dylan- Acoustic Period
*1st Album: The Times Are A-Changin’ (63)
*1st Album became an anthem for frustrated youth
*Was his most overt protest album
*Gives the feeling of the “dust bowl” era
*Grapes of Wrath
*With God On Our Side (64)
Bob Dylan- Electric Period
*Illustrated wit
*Music was a catalyst for the drug culture and the Vietnam war
*Dylan’s electric band went on to form The Band (Robbie Robertson)
*Set the scene for “folk-rock”
Subterranean Homesick Blues
*Dylan’s 1st top 40 hit
*1 of Dylan’s 1st electric pieces
Bob Dylan- Like a Rolling Stone
Critics considered it to be Dylan’s magnum opus
The Byrds
*Group the synthesized Dylan and the Beatles
*Dylan’s composition: Mr. Tambourine Man (65)
*Declared to be the 1st folk-rock hit in rock history
*Beatles’ Ticket to Ride inspired the sound and feel
Eight Miles High (66)
Herald as the 1st drug tune and led 60’s music tot he psychedelic period- aka “Acid Rock”
For What It’s Worth
*One of the most representative sounds of the 1960’s
*Written by Stephen Stills during the aftermath of the infamous Sunset Strip riots of 1966-1967
*Commonly labeled as a protest song