New Orleans
1718 first metropolitan city
Congo Square
1817 Slaves allowed to practice their own music on sundays
Minstrel Shows
1840-1920 Traveled across country to entertain
Were made to make fun of and degrade black people
Minstrel shows used blackface to caricature black people and make them seem stupid
Thomas Dartmouth Daddy Rice
1828 Wrote Jump Jim Crow
Jump Jim Crow
1828 Made to degrade blacks
Steven Foster
wrote several songs for minstrel shows
“I dream of Jeanie with the light brown hair”
Civil War
1861 South Carolina seceded and five other states followed
Atlanta, Savannah Georgia were devastated
1865 War ends
Compromise of 1877
Northern Republicans made deal that if republican president was elected they would remove troops and end reconstruction
3 elements that influence western music
Scott Joplin
1877 “The Maple Leaf Rag”
Developed Ragtime, syncopated
Syncopation-“ music that is off the beat”
Ragtime popular form 1890’s-1920’s
Ragging the Melody to turn music into ragtime
Delta Blues
Set the framework for Jazz
Used singer and guitar
Blues progression- AAB
4 bar phrase repeated 3 times
Used from late 1800’s to today
Charlie Patton
Famous delta blues musician
Sun House
Famous delta blues musician
Classic Blues
Sung by a black woman with a band
Same progression as delta blues
Bessie Smith
Famous classic blues artist
Robert Johnson
Set the stage for blues
Creoles of color
children of white men and black women.
1891 Law passed that if any relatives were black you would be considered black.
Buddy Bolden
considered to be the first black musician
Used syncopation
Created Jazz
Always in trouble with police for having a big mouth
“The funky butt” criticized white congressman- was arrested at shows for it
Jazz incorporated syncopation in their music
Began to use the blues progression in the jazz music
Boogie Woogie
black style of music played on the piano 1910-20’s became very popular in 20’s
Came out of Texas
Made an impression on early rock and roll
Mead Lux Louis
famous boogie woogie player
Rhythm and Blues
1940’s- came out of jazz
Precursor to rock and roll
Louis Jordan
Composer, band leader, played saxophone
Developed rhythm and blues
Joe Turner
played blues with a rock and roll feel in the 1940’s
T-Bone Walker
Rigged up a guitar with pickups- first electric guitar
“Stormy Monday blues”
Muddy Waters
Combined different music styles to create something close to early rock and roll
Used AAB style
Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys
white players who got into this style of music
“Let’s Rock”
Big Momma Thorton
“ Aint nothing but a hound dog”
Cosmo Matassa
1945 Got a recording studio, J&M Records, in New Orleans
Signed Fats Domino and Little Richard
J&M Records
(1945) Owned by Cosmo Matassa
Signed Little Richard and Fats Domino
New Orleans
Fats Domino
music combined country music with blues to create a new sound
Put out a rock and roll record in 1949
“Ain’t That a Shame”
“Blueberry Hill”
Sold 30 million copies
“I’m Walkin Again”
Little Richard
Originally from Georgia
Very flamboyant and in your face, threatening to white people
More of a renegade
“Tooty Fruity”
“Long Tall Sally”
Influenced by southern gospel
Created the new rock and roll sound that all rock was built off of
Combined boogie woogie and rhythm and blues
Ike Turner
Considered to have made the first rock and roll record in the 50’s
“Rocket 88”
Signed by Sun Records
Pat Boone
covered Little Richard, Fats Domino, and others
Made lyrics more friendly and likeable by white parents
Came and dressed down the black music to make it acceptable to white parents
Made tons of money of other black artist’s songs
Alan Freed
one of the first white people to play rock n roll
Disk Jockey who promoted rock n roll
Coined the phrase and called the music “rock and roll”
Rock and roll was slang for having sex
David Bartholomew
Studio musician for J&M Records
Sam Phillips
Started recording lots of black musicians 1950
Recorded BB King, Ike Turner, Rosco Gordon, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Louis
Owned Sun Records
Signed Elvis Presley
Sold Elvis’s contract to RCA records for $35,000
Elvis Presley
Toured with Scotty Moore (Guitar) Bill Black (Bass)
Played Rock and Roll for the masses- brought it into the mainstream
Combined many older styles of music to create an original sound
Used many black music influences to create his own music
Confused many older white parents who didn’t like his music
Invented rockabilly
A combination of hill-billy (country) and Rock n roll
Duey Phillips
disk jockey played “that’s alright mama”
Chess Records
– Independent record company from Chicago
Founded by Phil and Leonard Chess
Signed Bo Diddley, Chuck Barry
Chicago Sound
Electric guitar and amplified harmonica
Chicago Blues
Electric version of delta blues created in Chicago
Bo Diddley
Worked for Chess Records
One of the first black musicians to play the electric guitar
Developed the “Bo Diddley Beat”
Used a salsa beat
Chuck Barry
First musicians to play solos on guitar, influenced future guitarists
“Maybelline” “Jonnie B Good” “Roll Over Beethoven”
Put country influences into his music
Signed with Chess Records
Played songs that young white kids liked
They had money
His songs played things that concerned white teenagers
Carl Perkins
Became the King of Rockabilly
Artist for sun records
“Blue Suede Shoes”
Standard Rock Band
2 Guitars, Bass, Drums, Vocals
Jerry Lee Louis
Signed by Sun Records
1956- “Whole Lotta Shakin”
Buddy Holly
Combined country and rock
8 hits in 2 years
Popularized the Fender Stratocaster
Buddy Holly and the Crickets were the prototype for a “self-contained” rock band.
Set standard for rock bands
Influenced the Beatles name choice
“Peggy Sue”
Eddie Cocherin
Developed power chords
“Summertime Blues”
The Day The Music Died
Elvis Presley got drafted by the U.S. Military
Chuck Barry had sex with a white girl across the state line, and did 2 years in prison
Buddy Holly died in a plane crash
Jerry Lee Louis married his 13 year old cousin
Little Richard became a priest
Eddie Cocherin was killed in a car crash
Payola Scandal
Disk Jockeys played records for a price, made money without paying taxes
Alan Freed lost his career
Piano created in the 1700’s
Piano forte took the place of the harpsichord
Originally all wood with steel strings
Around early 1800’s were made with a cast iron frame which made it much stronger
Considered at percussion type instrument in an orchestra
Piano became a solo instrument during the 1800’s
Originally called the piano forte
3 Types of piano
Grand Piano
Baby Grand Piano
Upright Piano or Spinet
Has 4 strings
String bass, contra bass, double bass, or dog house
Used in classical music, part of the violin/viola family
In the beginnings of rock, the bass was plucked or pulled instead of played with a bow
Cymbals, tom toms, snare drums, bass drum, high hat
Originated as a marching instrument
Created in 3000 B.C.E
Spanish Guitar (classical acoustic)
6 string guitar
Gut strings or nylon
Steel string guitar
6 string guitar
Became very popular in the 20th century
Jazz Guitar
Originally an acoustic
Hollow body guitar
Electric Guitar
Electric Guitar
Electric Guitars were developed in the 50’s
Electric guitars had been made since the 30’s but they weren’t practical
Fender guitars
Developed by Leo Fender
Fender Stratocaster
Les Paul guitars
Developed by Les Paul
Gibson contracted him to create a guitar for them
Gibson Flying-V
Hollow body electric
Les Paul created one of the first electric jazz guitars
Knobs control volume and tone
Had feedback problems
Solid body
Leo Fender created the Fender Stratocaster
Gibson Flying-V
Electric Bass
4 string bass
Played with 2 fingers
Used in rock n roll
L.A. Rockabilly
New more popular music version of rockabilly played by ricky nelson
Toned down version of original music
Ricky Nelson
Parents had a T.V. show
“The adventures of Ozzie and Harriet”
Got his music played on this T.V. show
Played L.A. Rockabilly
“I’m Walkin”
“Mary Lou”
Bill Haley
“Rock Around the Clock”
Was the first rock n roll song to be used in a movie
Considered the first rock n roll song