1st beat in a measure
up beat
last beat in a measure
beats 2 and 4 in a 4 beat measure
music in which more than one rhythm pattern is played at the same time
shuffle beat
four-bar phrase
a four-bar section of music ending with a partial or total feeling of completeness, most often paired with another four-bar phrase to make up a complete period ending with a cadence
tonic chord
1st scale degree of a diatonic scale (I)
subdominant chord
4th scale degree of a diatonic scale (IV)
dominant chord
5th scale degree of a diatonic scale (V)
12 bar blues
classic blues form structured in three four-bar phrases, and follows a chord progression based on four bars of a tonic chord, two bars of a subdominant chord, two bars of a tonic chord, one bar of a dominant chord, one bar of a subdominant chord, and two bars of a tonic chord.
Delta Blues
country blues style of Robert Johnson and others who came from the Mississippi delta region
major chord
a chord based on a triad in which the bottom and next higher notes are a major third apart and the middle and highest notes are a minor third apart. sounds HAPPY
minor chord
sounds SAD
a chord that contains 3 notes
doo-wop chord progression
a tonic chord, a submedian seventh chord, a supertonic seventh chord, and a dominant seventh chord
one or more notes that lead into a downbeat at the beginning of a musical phrase
exclusive right to control the use of an artistic work for the amount of time allowed by the law. 1790 the American National Copyright Act was passed
operatic term for song
multiple pitches sung on a single syllable
a cappella
singing without instrumental accompaniment
a high male vocal range above the normal tenor range
plucked string Indian instrument
forte piano
early version of the piano, good fortepianos are very responsive because of their light build
name the Big 5 rock stars
Little Richard
Chuck Berry
Jerry Lee Louis
Elvis Presley-Sun Records Company, Memphis. Went to war, starred in films.
Buddy Holly
Payola Scandal
Payola was the practise of paying for airplay or other publicity. By late 50s, payola became payments to encourage programmers to more radio/tv time to songs and was considered unethical. in 1958, ASCAP requested investigations on DJs for being bribed for airtime
American Bandstand
Produced and hosted by Dick Clark. showcased teen idols and dancers. filmed in Philly
Robert Johnson
one of the most influential country blues singer/guitarist who recorded in the 30s. “cross road blues”
Ray Charles
Influenced by gospel call and response, Soul singer/musician. orphaned at 15, made living by playing music
BB King
BB derived from nickname Blues Boy. real name was Riley. played urban blues guitar style. grew up in mississippi. huge influence on eric clapton. played with U2 in Rattle and Hum
Bo Diddley
Ellas Bates. strong rhythmic style, considered rhythm and blues in the 50s. Used a bottle neck to slideup and down between frets because he only played one chord
Fats Domino
Antoine Domino, called Fats because of his girth. Rhythm and blues
Hank Williams Sr
Honky Tonk singer and songwriter. died from dependency on painkillers and alcohol. last single to be released was “I’ll Never Get Out of This World Alive”
James Brown
earned his money by dancing on the street corners for tips when he a child. as a youth he sang gospel music in Georgia. Sang secular music with gospel tunes with the Famous Flames first. was praised for his effort to direct african americans toward a peaceful movement for equal rights. influence on soul and funk.
Bill Haley
country singer and guitarist from michigan. DK in the late 40s. Bill Haley and the Comets
Berry Gordy Jr
african american songwriter from Detroit. saw that blacks needed more than acceptance; respect. formed his own record company Hitsville and then changed it to Motown after Detroit’s nickname Motor City. cultivated a sophisticated image in his artists. opened a finishing school called International Talent Management to teach blacks upperclass white manners. stevie wonder came out of Motown.
Sam Phillips
Alabama farm boy. was a DJ. moved to memphis and started the Memphis Recording Studio. he liked the blues so most of his artists were African American. in 51, formed Sun Record Company so he could release his own recordings. was aware of white interest in blues.knew that he needed a white performer who could capture the African American blues style. ->found Elvis Presley
Pat Boone
clean cut, boy next door image. cleaned up lyrics to rockabilly songs. teen idol.
Sam Cooke
began singing career in 51, lead singer for the Soul Stirrers. wanted to branch out into secular music. became teen idol for african americans . shot to death in a motel by a woman who claimed he attacked her.
Phil Spector
recorded so many instruments together in mono instead of stereo-became known as wall of sound. worked in brill building. produced beatles’ let it be.
Alan Freed
Cleveland Ohio. DJ. Played black and white music on radio without telling audience which was which. lost his job in payola scandal.
Beach Boys
-Brian Wilson
Brian, Carl, and Dennis Wilson + Mike Love + Alan Jardine. Surfin USA had same chord progression as Chuck Berry’s Sweet Little Sixteen. Brian Wilson was songwriter, even when he stopped touring. put Pet Sounds together as a concept album. Brains behind the beach boys
Aretha Franklin
Atlantic Records. grew up singing gospel music. moved to NY to sing secular music but not until she joined Atlantic Records did she sing energetically at Muscle Shoals. RESPECT
Phil & Leonard Chess
Chess Records. Chicago. Immigrated from Poland. gave backup musicians and amplification that resulted in urban sound. Willie Dixon- songwriter. Muddy Waters. Chess Records gave Cadillacs to its artists.
Jerry Wexler and Ahmet Ertegun
Atlantic Record Company. Moved their artists around according to the song they wanted. Used Stax and Muscle Shoals. Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett
Dick Clarck
Host and producer of American Bandstand. was able to sell his interests during the Payola Scandal and keep his show due to the fact that American Bandstand was considered a good influence on teens
Oral poets in Africa who memorized and sand the story of their people’s history