“white guys with loud guitars” – stereotype
Four-Beat Feel
jazz, swing era.
walking (not jumping) bass line and smooth drumming.

downbeat at beginning of measure.

Two-Beat Feel
traditional marching band music, country, polka, other dance based music
Straight Beat
marching band
Swing Beat
extra push to the dancers.

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location: can be on beats 1&3 or 2&4

Ex. “What I Like About You” by The Romantics (beat 2&4)

attack in an unexpected (weak) position at the expense of a strong

Ex. “Walk This Way” by Aerosmith

Blue Notes
hit a note then increase/decrease in pitch.

pitch space, rather than pitch point.
bend 3rd note.

12-Bar Blues Form
popular chord progression.

– a , , a’ , , b ,
— I , I , IV , I , V , I
— 1 2, 3 4, 5 6, 7 8, 9 10, 11 12

blue notes, 12 bar blues, repetition, suffering
vitality (good feeling), intensive social interaction, intense expression
Honky Tonk
hard edge of country.

style of piano playing related to ragtime, but emphasizing rhythm more than melody or harmony.
pianos often out of tune and had some nonfunctioning keys.

(‘honky tonks’=raunchy bars with dance floors that existed)

Jump Bands
dance band whose music aimed to be not sophisticated or complex, but simple, direct bluesy, rhythmic, and perfect for dancing. played by smaller bands than big bands, just a rhythm section and a few horns.
Chicago Blues
dirtier, hotter sound that in some ways translates the older sound of southern country blues.

1.rural, acoustic country blues.
2.primitive electrification.

cross breeding of rock n roll and hillbilly music.

stripped down and lean (few instruments).
strong rhythm.

artists=Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins

Sun Studios
recording studio founded by Sam Phillips that defines rockabilly and slap back echo (soft & operatic voice)
Doo Wop
1950’s mainstream, youthful pop vocal harmony style.

‘third rail’ of rock n roll

pointy sounds (staccato).

electric guitar.
lounge music.

Ex. “Pocket Calculator” by Kraftwerk

Ambient Music
background music, ‘easy listening’ music, ‘environment’ music, meant to make you feel good while you ignore it.

unnoticed ‘sound of modern life’.

Ex. shopping ‘environments’ in malls and supermarkets or ‘relaxing’ at home

(Muzak=quintessential ‘ambient music’ company)

Lounge Music
easy listening.

modernist music.

Wall of Sound
lots of instruments, massive and complex.

created by Phil Spector in 1960s.

Ex. Beatles’s music

Garage Bands
rebellious bands that had to play in garage, no money.

wanted music to sound dirty and rough. used distortion of guitar.
played garage music. short, simple, stupid.
rough dirty teen music.

Surfing Music
opposite of girl group music, parallel. (almost like a guy group)

instruments are essential.
like garage music but cleaner.
elements: rock n roll bluesy, teen pop

Ex. Pipeline by the Chantays

Psychedelic Qualities
social rebellion.
experiments with different sounds, instruments and styles.
sound is a loose, free flowing style giving an impression of being unrestricted from a formal music pattern.
the Beats
adult quality of artists-poetry.

cynical, high emphasis-getting it, intellectual.
experimentation with drugs, alternative forms of sexuality, a rejection of materialism.
idea of the hipster comes out of this generation.
mantra: sex, drugs, & jazz (“Do You Get It?”)

Folk Revival
later 50s and 60s.
2 early important “folkies”=Leadbelly and Woody Guthrie.

previously non-mainstream folk music is popular.
adaptation of folk styles to pop (or rock) structures
invention of bands, not only solo acts.
new instruments
politically aware lyrics, critical of a government, religion or other authority, or society in general.
performers come from very different social and economic backgrounds compared to the people whose style of music they are popularizing.

Bubblegum Music
catchy and safe music for little children and old people.

short, catchy, no message.
british invasion aspect still.

Ex. “I’m A Believer” by the Monkees (bubblegum band)

Blues Rock
acoustic blues. chicago blues.

relates to 50s skiffle, which incorporated American acoustic blues traditions.
emphasis on ‘theater’ of individual suffering and achievement and on ‘glory’ of instrumental blues soloing.

Southern Rock
rootsiness, roughness, sweetness, and lazy rhythmic style.

decline of 60s revolution.

Hard Rock
straight ahead drumming style (duple), very loud volume, bluesiness, “rock harmony”, professional technique (performance, theatrical presence), originality, hardness (as an ideology), bad boy image.
Stadium (Arena) Rock
huge, vast venues for rock n roll concerts.

more about context of music than content.
Beatles first to acquire true stadiums for their concerts.

Progressive Rock
one of the many intertwined, blurring genres in 1970s.

takes rock to next level-complex and advanced.
“moving [rock] forward”.
new and positive.
-classical music, jazz, avant-garde (experimental and psychedelic), and performance art (theatricality and grand concept).

instruments with no vocals.

jazz, funk.
funky rock jazz.

not musical style, but visual style.

1970s. explored androgyny (sexual ambiguity).
Ex. MacJagger. playing feminine roles, makeup.
effect=long hair, extreme and feminine clothing, falsetto singing, sexual adventurousness.

steady sense of rhythmic flow that conveys a kind of distinct expressive ‘personality’ or identity.

textural layering with contrasts of riffing, vamping, and syncopation.

syncopated, but straight beat.

associated with groove

simple and straight forward beat. fast pulse.

DJ. sock hops, record hops.


assembled record collections, and they formed clubs for listening.

MC is a music artist and/or performer who usually creates and performs vocals for his/her own original material.
african american culture (new identity).

simple, repetitive patterns.

era of “no” (don’t do this. don’t wear that”).

flipping whole education.
bubblegum is essential – irony

New Wave
take disco beats and mix with simplicity/bubblegum features of punk.

Ex. “Rock Lobster”

“Do It Yourself”

punk, indie, hardcore, garage (Ex. Link Wray).

mid 1970s NY club. country, bluegrass, blues.

hosted legendary bands that would eventually define ‘revolution’ of punk.

upbeat dance music. combined Caribbean musical styles based on jazz and New Orleans R&B.

square rhythm with strong backbeat.
like rock ‘n’ roll, but with a sharp, pointillistic attack on offbeats, and a style with horns, guitars, or keyboards in band.

slow pace, sharpened backbeat. focus on ‘rock’ instrumentation with a newly sharp social and political commentary.

became a worldwide sensation.

Ex. Bob Marley

mixing electronic sounds with samples of music.

inventor=Lee ‘Scratch’ Perry.

Digital Technology
CD, MIDI keyboards, effects boxes (delay, chorus, overdrive, flanging, and other electronic sound processing)

signal processing and recording, distribution of music, playback at home.

chunk of material
putting music in order
Performance Art
extension of art (painting, sculptures) and performance (acting, comedy, ballet) with music (element of ‘theatricality’ in glam, prog)
Roots Rock
rock music that looks back to rock’s origins in folk, blues and country music.
faster, thicker, and heavier than regular punk rock.


Straight Edge
blended elements of D.C. minimalist hardcore with elements from metal, featuring loud guitars, heavy riffs, and increased soloistic virtuosity.

CBGB was the center of this trend.

Indie Rock
Indie Rock
independent rock music.

alternative rock.
mainstream for college students (college rock).
independent labels emerged.

Major Labels
expensive studio structure and production teams.

controlled aspects of musicians’ music.

Independent Labels
artists get more freedom, or willing take more chances on their ideas.

tied to local bands and fans.
as crucial to indie rock as to punk and hardcore

constant experimentation, spirit of rebellion, avant-garde, blurring of boundaries between different styles, sound technology, and political role.
Industrial Music
samples of sounds that aren’t musical.
Ex. sound of hammer hitting something.

factory sound, corporate indifference, loss of individual dignity (eventually sanity).

Heavy Metal
roots in blues/psychedelic rock.

thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness.
masculine and macho lyrics and performance styles.

“ripped jeans and flannel shirts”

peak of 80’s alternative rock movement.
heavily distorted electric guitars, contrasting song dynamics, and apathetic or angst-filled lyrics.
rough appearances and rejection of theatrics.

Thrash Metal
fast drumming and guitar playing (shotgun guitar)
Rap Metal
uses vocal and instrumental elements of hip hop with heavy metal.
Hip Hop
dancing, fashion, distinct black subcultures, graffiti.

rapping, beat technique, sound production.
lyrics: political and cultural confrontation.
black communities in NY. african american side of recent popular music.

turntable. working the record back and forth physically underneath the needle as the LP played.

“eeeee” sound.
associate with hip hop.

wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses: foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music.

not all made for dancing.

Jam Bands

really long songs.

Ex. Phish, Grateful Dead, Lotus.

artist drawing from different styles all at once.

broad, listen to all different genres.

Ex. “What Would I Want? Sky” by Animal Collective.

sense of return to once was.

disregard for genre.
trying to look old when it’s new (old school feel with new materials).
ironic and eclectic playfulness.
dark elements-corruption or failure.

Ex. genre freaking

recycling of old music (not to re-create that music in its original form) to create something new out of it.

use sampling and sequencing.

electronic combination of 2 or more songs, videos, etc.

Ex. Grey Album (mashup of Beatles’s White Album with Kanye West’s Black Album)

Genre Freaking
mixing elements from other genres, making it not sound like other elements.

Ex. Flaming Lips