British Invasion

Timing was important (1964) Kennedy was shot

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The British resurrected the music we ignored

Englands James Dean counterpart was The Teddy Boys

Skiffle Music

A tame brand of pop folk music and traditional jazz taken from New Orleans Style

Music was popular in England int he mid 1950’s

Lonnie Donegan “King of Skiffle”

Changed social behavior, brought change in the music

British Bands turned to Elvis, Little Richard, Chuck Berry Etc.

Initial Important Facts about the beatles

Leading group of pop history

Able to change music history through all facets, musical style, fashion, and social behavior

Early Influences: Skiffle Music

Can be broken into 3 distinctive periods

The Early Period

Pop Style

Love Songs

Driving up beat tempo

Hambury, Germany became their training ground

The Early Period Recordings

The first album (Please Please Me) was recorded in only 13 hours

Four Ablbums fall into the early period

From the beginning Lennon, McCartney, were not equal in writing their songs

American Releases are different than British Releases

The Middle Period

More acoustic/folk elements (Dylan Influence)

Introspective style emerges

Individuality more evident

Social statement in songs

Next 2 Albums Help! (Aug 65) and Rubber Soul (Dec. 65)

Music Selections from the middle period

You’ve got to hide your love away

Bigger than jesus Controversey (March 1966)

The Late Period

Use of studio techniques

music more individualized

more artisitic composition

Added insturmentation

Drug Influenced

tyhe Whiel album titled The Beatles is ironically the least collaboratvie album the group made

7 Album releases

Revolver, Sgt. Pepper, Magical Mystery Tour, Yellow Submarine, The Beatles (White Album) Let it Be, Abbey Road

Music Selctions from the Late Period
Tomorrow Never Knows
Strawberry Fields Forever (Lennon 1.0)
Written in 1966 during the filming of “How i Won the War” strawberry fields was infact a salvation army house in the neighborhood where lennon grew up
More Interesting Facts about the Beatles

Lennon and McCartney composed many songs that provided other performers with many hits

Many firsts happened with the Beatles in the studio

Use of recorded feedback sitar mellotron, fuzz bass effect studio manipulation, backward tape loops

George Martin
Considered the 5th beatle
Ringo Starr
Respected by many drummers and musicians for his excellent time keeping
John Mayall and the Bluesbreakers
Known as the elder statesmen of British Blues music
The Yardbirds

The starting point for Clapton/Beck/Page

Early pioneers of psychedelic music

Kown for ad hoc jams (called Raves)

Fierce drive to the music

I’m a Man, Got love if you want it, Smoke Stack lightning

Jeff Beck Jimmy Page

Mix of R;B with extended guitar/Harmonica Passages Blues with a fierce drive to the music

The Animals


Eric Burdon

Second only to the rolling stones in influencing among R;B based bands

Them (Van Morrison)

Led by Van Morrison rank them among the best of the British Invasion bands

Considered the most critically acclaimed pop music songwriter of the 1960’s

Composer of rock classic “Gloria”


almost entirely attributed to one man Berry Goudy

R&B music that passed for black and white in sound

Perfected Gospel pop fusion

Berry Gourdy

Produced a unique blend of stock rock chord progressions

Gospel Feel

Doo Wop male Vocals

Solid instrumental back up

The Motown Formula

repeated use of a catchy hook phrase

repitition of melodic hooks resulted in familiarity to the public

produced the sound of Young America

Studio Musicians were known as the Funk Brothers

The Funk Brothers

The studio musicians who shaped the Motown Sound

Played on more number one hits than the beatles, the rolling stones, the beach boys, and elvis combined

The funk Brothers are documented in the movie “standing in the shadows of motown”

Holland Dozier Holland
Leading writing team of Motown
Smokey Robinson and the Miracles

Known for Robinsons beautiful falsetto voice

Ballads become the Miracles Forte

Marvin Gaye

became one of Motowns most enigmatic and consistently popular acts


Stage One Marvin Gaye (1963-1971)
worked with all the motown production staff and founded medium tempo shouters to be succesful
Stage Two Marvin Gaye (1971-1984)
Pensive and introspective style
The Four Tops

Music built around lead singer Levi Stubbs

“Baby I need your loving” and “I cant help Myslef”

The Temptations

The Finest vocal group in the 60’s soul music

The closest to church and gospel roots

“My Girl”

Diana Ross and The Supremes

One of the most important female groups in rock history

The Supremes music is the purest expression of the Motown Sound

The Jackson 5

Fronted by the 10yr old Michael Jackson

He danced like a mini james brown

;transcended all races and age barriers

Rare Earth

Motown’s premier white rock and soul band

Motowns experimental assult on the rock market

Labeled ” Blue eyed soul”

“Get Ready” and ” I just want to celebrate”

Stevie Wonder

Most succesful artists in Motown’s history

First big hit was “Fingertips” part 2 age 12

First live recording to hit #1 in rock history “Little”

120 page contract with motown made business history

by the 70’s he was playing most of the instruments on his album

Bob Dylan

Most important American contributor to rock music

First Poet of the mass media

two distinctive time periods 1) Acoustic 2) Electric

This implues folk and rock are seperate—dyan shows that is rock

Fusion of country, folk, bliues, rock n roll, and poetry both ancient and new

His lyrics have been discussed in english classes

Bob Dylan Acoustic Period

First album “times they are a changing”

was his most overt protest album

Gives the feeling of the dust bowl era

Grapes of Wrath

Times they are a changing

Became an anthem for a frusterated youth

with god on our side (1964)

Electric Period

Illustrates wit

Music was a catalyst for the drug culture and the Vietnam War

Dylan’s Electric band went on to form the band (Robbie Robertson)

Set the scene for folk rock

Subterranean Homesick Blues

Dylans first top 40 hit

One of dyland first electric pieces

Like a Rolling Stone
Critics considered it to be Dylan’s Magnum opus
The Byrds

Groups that synthesized Dylan and the Beatles

Dylans Composition: Mr Tamborine Man (65)

Declared to be the first folk rock hit in rock history

beatles tick to ride inspired the sound and feel

Eight Miles HIgh (66)
Hearld as the first drug tune and led 60’s music to the psychedelic period aka acid rock
For what it’s worth

One of the most representative sounds of the 1960’s

written by stephen stils during the aftermath of the infamous sunset strips riots of 66-67

Commonley labeled a protest song

Stevie Wonder

Most successful artist in motown history

first big hit was fingertips part 2 age 12

first live recording to hit #1 in rock history was “Little”

120 page contract with motown made business history;

by the 70’s he was playing most of the instruments on his album

Solomon Burke

Brought Country influence into R/B

Burke never celebrate a number one hit on the pop charts but enjoyed many hits in the R/B charts

Wilson Pickett

Atlantics best selling southern soul performer

in the midnight hour most successful soul song of the era

Instrumental Soul Memphis

Formed Booker T and the MG’s

“Green Onions”

Otis Redding

Skillful at delivering ballads with passion

earned a reputation as leading performer of soul ballads;

his performance at the monteray pop festival gained him a wider audience;

The San Francisco Scene

Haight Ashbury

large community of folk musicians;

The acid test by Ken Keesy became known as the happening

Estimated there were 500-1500 bands in the area


became entrenched in the university curriculum by the early 1960’s

Gave students a language to question complacent assumptions of American Society 

Psychedelic Music/San Francisco Scene

Floating to the music

eastern indian influence (sitar) 

The Charlateans
Considered to be the start of the Haight Ashbury scene
Moby Grape

one of the best san Francisco bands on the 60’s

most versatile other than Sg bands

combinations of folk blues country and Classic R/R

Early airplane played some of Moby’s compositions 

Jefferson Airplane

Most popular of the san francisco bands

leaders of the protest movement and supporters of free love

Grace Slick

Great Females Rock voice

Represented the love hate relationship of the 60’s

The Grateful Dead

considered to be the ultimate cult band

never really part of the mainstream music scene

House band for Keesey’s Acid Test “happenings”

music is an electric blend of folk country and blues

Fans known as the Deadheads

27 club
Jimi Hendrix, Kurt Cobain, Van Morrison, janice joplin, Brian jones. all died at 27 yrs old 
Janice Joplin

a representation of a culture and a generation (like Dylan)

Broke barriers for women in music industry 

overall her performances were fresh and sincere

sang the blues to transcend pain

Gained National Fame at Monteray Pop Festival

Jimi Hendrix
discovered by Chas Chandler (ex animal band member)
Jimi Hendrix Three Studio Albums

considered to be his finest work 

Are you experienced and Axis bold as love

Jimi Hendrix innovations

redefined the guitar and guitar performance 

able to explore and master all the sonic force of the instrument 

had the gift and ability to harness the distortions 

distortion and feedback were not for gimmick 

Jimmy Page
along with Hendrix expanded the sonic vocabulary of the electric guitar
Led Zeppelin 

later albums starting with Led Zeppelin 3 moved more to folk-derived material and Celtic mythology

considered to be the first heavy metal band in history 

Art Rock (Classical Rock)

blending of classical music with rock

references to mythology 

use of odd meters and frequent mood/tempo changes

large % of art rock were british bands

Art Rock Vs. Progressive Rock

art rock was influenced by classical music 

progressive rock music influenced by Jazz styles

Viewed by the Rock Purist

attempt to legitimize rock music

aimed to broaden the market of listeners of rock music 

punk music was a revolt of Art Rock music 

Leading british art rock bands of the 60/70’s: Moody Blues and Pink Floyd

Moody Blues

Days of the future passed

concept album

Programmatic music;

paved the way for other art rock bands

Pink Floyd

experimental space rock band;

inclusion of concrete music;

creation of themes result in concepts of massive scale

syd barret an important founding member

Barrett played a major role in the musical and stylistic direction of the bands early work;

The Piper at the gates of dawn
Pink Floyds debut album only one made under Syd Barrett leadership;
Dark Side of the Moon
partly inspired by Syd Barrett’s deteriorating mental state
Frank Zappa

Music combines an understanding of and appreciation of 20th century composers Stravinsky Stockhausen and Edgard Varese

music was combined doo wop and rock and roll

social satire and stinging wit

avant garde jazz

guitar heavy rock and r/b

collages of many styles

satrist with a wicked sense of humor and absurdity 

his band the mothers of invention formed in 1966

David Bowie

British artist of theatre rock 

cross dressing resulted in Ziggy Stardust (1972)

Ziggy Sold in Britain not in the US (too mainstream)

Set the stage for glam rock (Lou Reed, Kiss, Ny Dolls)

Space oddity 1969

Proto Punk

never quite fit into mainstream rock and roll of the late 60’s early 70’s

early punk bands from Detroit

MC-5, The Stooges(Iggy Pop), Alice Cooper

Alice Cooper

father of shock rock

influenced by comic book stories and RKO horror movie shows


essentially laid the foundations for the emergence of punk 

Led by John Sinclair (leader of the infamous white panther party)

Iggy Pop

Godfather of punk music

carried on the stage the drama of Jim Morrison 

early group the stooges 

The velvet underground

NY proto punk

known as the key touchstone to punk and new wave combination of music and art 

Patti Smith

Improvised lyrics that reflected the NY lifestyle

combines 60;s garage rock with the literary writing styles of Rimbaud, Burroughs and Ginsberg

Referred to as the godmother of punk 

Horse 1975

anticipates new wave of music

a hybrid of classical rock and pose beat poetry 

The Ramones

most popular of the punk bands 

crystallized the musical ideals of the genre 

cut rock and roll down to its bare essentials

1. Four chords

2.simple catchy

3. irresistibly insane lyrics

4.very fast tempos

The Ramones Cont.

created something that was rooted in the early 60’s pre beatles rock and roll and pop but sounded revolutionary.

Labeled by some as bubble gum punk

Blitzkrieg Bop


I wanna be Sedated;

Punk the british connection

brought to the UK by Malcolm Mclaren

Mclaren became the sex pistols manager;